Flashcards in Mental Health Deck (52):
A psychological term for an observable expression of emotion.
A person's affect is the expression of emotion or feelings displayed to others through facial expressions, hand gestures, voice tone, and other emotional signs such as laughter or tears.
any act that is intended to cause pain, suffering, or damage to another person.
The state of being emotionally separated from others and from one's own feelings.
Medications used to treat depression.
A pattern of behavior that is verbally or physically harmful to other people, animals, or property, including behavior that severely violates social expectations for a particular environment.
Antisocial personality disorder
A behavior disorder developed by a small percentage of children with conduct disorder whose behavior does not improve as they mature. Also known as sociopathic or psychopathy
An unpleasant emotion triggered by anticipation of future events, memories of past events, or ruminations about the self.
can be defined as an absence or suppression of emotion, feeling, concern or passion, and it is an indifference to things generally found to be exciting or moving.
The area of psychology in which basic theory and research are applied to the actual problems faced by individuals on a daily basis.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Disorder characterized by attentional deficit and/or hyperactivity—impulsivity more severe than expected for a developmental age.
A severe psychological disorder that first appears in early childhood and is characterized by impaired social interaction and language development, and other behavioral problems.
Autonomic nervous system
he nervous system responsible for regulating automatic bodily processes, such as breathing and heart rate. The autonomic system also involves the processes of metabolism, or the storage and expenditure of energy.
An individual's response to avoid an unpleasant or stressful situation; also known as escape learning.
A goal-oriented, therapeutic approach that treats emotional and behavioral disorders as maladaptive learned responses that can be replaced by healthier ones with appropriate training.
A technique that allows individuals to monitor their own physiological processes so they can learn to control them.
A condition (traditionally called manic depression) in which a person alternates between the two emotional extremes of depression and mania (an elated, euphoric mood).
The subjective conception of one's own body, based largely on evaluative judgments about how one is perceived by others.
Central nervous system
In humans, that portion of the nervous system that lies within the brain and spinal cord; it receives impulses from nerve cells throughout the body, regulates bodily functions, and directs behavior.
The process of closely associating a neutral stimulus with one that evokes a reflexive response so that eventually the neutral stimulus alone will evoke the same response.
Cognitive behavior therapy
A therapeutic approach based on the principle that maladaptive moods and behavior can be changed by replacing distorted or inappropriate ways of thinking with thought patterns that are healthier and more realistic.
Unconscious strategies for avoiding or reducing threatening feelings, such as fear and anxiety.
Delay of gratification
The ability to forgo an immediate pleasure or reward in order to gain a more substantial one later.
Beliefs that are in stark contrast to reality, often having to do with persecution or an exaggerated sense of importance or glory.
An emotional state or mood characterized by one or more of these symptoms: sad mood, low energy, poor concentration, sleep or appetite changes, feelings of worthlessness or hopelessness, and thoughts of suicide.
A behavior modification technique used to combat phobias and other irrational fears.
Medications administered to help people suffering from psychological illnesses.
is that portion of the personality that imposes realistic limitations on the id.
The process by which infants and children begin developing the capacity to experience, express, and interpret emotions.
The ability to perceive and constructively act on both one's own emotions and the feelings of others.
The capacity to vicariously experience and understand the thoughts and feelings of another person by putting oneself in that person's place.
A term used to characterize people who are typically outgoing, friendly, and open toward others.
he general, predictable pattern of the process of forgetting learned information.
A person's mental representation of who he or she is. Components of identity include a sense of personal continuity and of uniqueness from other people.
In psychoanalytic theory, the most primitive, unconscious element of human personality. The id is the part of the personality that includes such basic biological impulses or drives as eating, drinking, eliminating wastes, avoiding pain, attaining sexual pleasure, and aggression.
Impulse control disorders
A psychological disorder characterized by the repeated inability to refrain from performing a particular action that is harmful either to oneself or others.
A psychological condition that exists when a person's feelings of inadequacy are so intense that daily living is impaired.
A commonly used term for people who are quiet, reserved, thoughtful, and self-reliant and who tend to prefer solitary work and leisure activities.
A description of the condition opposite depression in manic-depressive psychosis, or bipolar disorder. It is characterized by a mood of elation without apparent reason.
picture created by the imagination with no visual stimulus required.
Excessive preoccupation with self and lack of empathy for others.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Mental illness characterized by the recurrence of intrusive, anxiety-producing thoughts (obsessions) accompanied by repeated attempts to suppress these thoughts through the performance of certain irrational, often ritualistic, behaviors (compulsions).
Approach to human learning based on the premise that human intelligence and will operate on the environment rather than merely respond to the environment's stimuli.
An acute feeling of intense fear, accentuated by increased heart rate, shortness of breath, sweating, and mild convulsions.
Passive aggressive personality
Its main distinguishing feature is indirect resistance to the demands or expectations of others through stubbornness, forgetfulness, inefficiency, procrastination, and other covert means. Rather than refusing outright to perform a task, the passive-aggressive person will do it badly or procrastinate until the deadline for its completion has passed.
In research, a scientifically significant response that cannot be explained by physiological variables and is assumed to be psychological in origin. Placebos are substances with no known pharmacological value that are given to members of a control group in an experiment.
A method of treatment for mental, emotional, and behavioral dysfunctions as developed by Sigmund Freud.
A symptom of mental illness characterized by a radical change in personality and a distorted or diminished sense of objective reality.
Rapid Eye Movement
the stage of sleep most closely associated with dreaming.
A prominent term in humanistic psychology that refers to the basic human need for self-fulfillment.
A prominent term in humanistic psychology that refers to the basic human need for self-fulfillment. Psychologists who write about self-esteem generally discuss it in terms of two key components: the feeling of being loved and accepted by others and a sense of competence and mastery in performing tasks and solving problems independently.
An initial expectation that is confirmed by the behavior it elicits.