Mental illness-->Depression Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mental illness-->Depression Deck (14):

In general what is the impairment in depression?

impairment of mood---> affective disorder


what are some general statistics associated with depression?

10% of the US suffer from a form of clinical depression
average onset of 28 y.o
women are 2-3x more likely to be effected
depressed patient typically do not seek care because they do not recognize it as clinical and treatable


what are the symptoms of patients with depression?

1. Affects mood, body and thoughts and can continue for weeks, months or years
2. persistent sad, anxious, or empty; hopeless, helpless, worthless or guilty
3. loss of interest in fun/pleasurable hobbies
4. decreased energy, fatigue/slowing down
5. difficulty concentrating, remembering, decision making
6. appetitie change; weight loss/gain
7. suicidal thoughts/ attempts
8. Persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatments: headaches, digestive disorder and pain


what are some causes of depression?

1. genetic vulnerability based on family history
2. additional factors include, stressed home/work/school
3. Stroke, MI, cancer, parkinson's and hormonal disorders
4. death, relationship issues and financial hardships
5. overall, it is a combination of biological, psychological and environmental factors


what is the pathogenesis associated with depression?

genetic factor --> polygenetic
morbidity rate: higher in 1st degree relatives of patients with depressive illness


what are the types of depression?

major depression : effects work, focus, sleep, eating and enjoying pleasurable activities
dysthymia: less severe; non disabling long term symptoms; generally not functioning well or feeling good


what are some treatment options for depression?

selective serotonin re uptake inhibitors (SSRI)
tricyclic anti-depressives
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI)
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) --> severe/life threatening depressing (rx ineffective and causes seizures)


what is a prophylactic treatment?

mood stabilizers include lithium, cabamacepine, lamotrigine, valoproate and others


what is the manic-depressive illness that was discussed?

bipolar disorder


describe bipolar disorder

cyclic mood changes, swinging from severe highs (manias) and lows (depression)


what are the two phases of bipolar disorder?

depressed phase--> patient has some or all the symptoms of major depression
mainic phase --> over active, over talkactive, excessive energy. patients judgement, social behavior are distorted and patient causes problems and embarrassment. patient feels elated, ideas of grandiosity.


what is mania?

exhibits symptoms such as excessive elation, irritability, decreased need for sleep, grandiosity, and social inappropriateness


Affective disorders are findings in functional imaging. Describe what you would see in the area of pre-frontal cortex, below the genu in the corpus callosum?

reduced activity during depressive phase and increased activity during manic phase


Describe what you would see in the sub-genual region of the prefrontal cortex

this is important for mood disorders and connects to many structures involved in emotional behavior including:
amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens and noradren/seroto/dopaminergic brain system