metallurgy Flashcards Preview

GMAW > metallurgy > Flashcards

Flashcards in metallurgy Deck (39)
Loading flashcards...

What is the carbon content range in steel?

.1 to 1.86%


What is the definition of ferrous metals?

Ferrous metals contain Iron. Ex. iron, steel, cast iron, stainless steels, tool steel.


What is the definition of non-ferrous metals?

Non Ferrous means that the metal does not contain iron or does not contain significant amounts of iron. Zinc, Copper, Brass, Bronze, Aluminum, Magnesium, Titanium, & Lead.


What happens when you spark test high carbon steels EX. Tool steel or cast iron?

With higher carbon steels the sparks become shorter and more spread out or "branched"


What happens when you spark test low carbon steels like wrought iron?

Lower carbon steels spread out less "branch less" and are longer.


What is the name for cooled hot iron?

Pig Iron


What is used to fuel a blast furnace?

Coke which is refined coal


What is a flux?

is a material that melts and combines with impurities in order to remove them. Limestone and Lime are examples of a flux.


What are the five major operations of a blast furnace?

1. Deoxidize the iron ore.
2. Melt the slag.
3. Melt the iron.
4.Carbonize the iron.
5. Separate the iron from the slag.


In the United States which is the most common furnace used to make steel?

Basic Oxygen Furnace.


What are the benefits of continuous casting?

Eliminates processing ingots, blooms, billets, & slabs. Much more efficient, production can be virtually continuous.


Why do we use coke instead of coal?

Coal often has impurities such as sulfur and phosphorous refining it into coke removes the impurities.


What is the difference between gray cast iron and white cast iron?

Gray cast iron is cooled slowly
White cast iron is cooled quickly and is more brittle.


What is one benefit of small amounts of sulfur in steel?

Sulfur improves the machining qualities of steel (detrimental to hot forming)


Define Tensile Strength

is the ability of a metal to resist being pulled apart.


Define compressive strength

is a measure of how much squeezing force it can withstand before it fails.


Define Hardness

is the quality which allows a metal to resist penetration.


Define Elongation

is a measure of how much a metal will stretch before it breaks.


Define Ductility

is the ability of a metal to be stretched.


Define Brittleness

opposite of ductility a brittle metal fracture if bent or struck.


Define toughness

Is the ability to prevent a crack from propagating.


What is the melting temperature of aluminum?

1220 F


What is the melting temperature of aluminum oxide?



what is the melting temperature of mild steel



What are the four factors of great importance when heat treating metals?

1. The Temperature?
2. The Length of time held at that temperature
3. The Rate of Cooling
4. The material surrounding the metal.


What is the definition of Ferrite?

Ferrite is practically pure iron and can contain a maximum of 0.02% at 1341C. it is present in all steel and cast iron. Ferrite is body centered cubic in structure and is ductile & tough.


What is the definition of Cementite?

Cementite or Fe3C has a high carbon content of 6.69% and is in-turn very hard and brittle. Cementite is found in all steels and cast irons.


What is the definition of Pearlite?

Pearlite is a combination of ferrite and cementite which forms in alternating layers. Pearlite always contains 0.77% carbon. If a steel has a carbon content above 0.77% cementite and pearlite will form. Below Ferrite and pearlite. Pearlite is very ductile.


What is the definition of Austenite?

Austenite is a high temp form of steel and cast iron. Austenite is stable above 1341C and will change into ferrite, cementite, pearlite, and martensite based on carbon content and cooling rates. Austenite is non magnetic and face centered cubic in structure.


What is the definition of Martensite

Martensite is a glass like in its grain structure and is formed from rapidly cooling from the austenite range. Martensite is very hard and brittle.