MHD - Lec #9 - Valvular Heart Disease Flashcards Preview

PHARM/MHD - Exam #4 > MHD - Lec #9 - Valvular Heart Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in MHD - Lec #9 - Valvular Heart Disease Deck (12):
1

The haphazard pattern of myocyte organization and interstitial fibrosis is a hallmark of _____

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

2

What is the inheritance pattern of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Autosomal dominant

3

Peripartum abnormalitites due to prolactin levels are often associated with what cardiomyopathy?

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

- genetic
-idiopathic
-peripartum
-toxin

4

What proteins are affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (3)

Does this lead to a gain or loss of function?

1. β-myosin heavy chain i
2. myosin-binding protein C
3. troponin I/T.

Gain of function resulting in a hyper contractile state.

Mutations in these three genes account for 70% to 80% of all cases of HCM.
The diverse mutations underlying HCM have one unifying feature: they all affect sarcomeric proteins and increase myofilament activation.

5

Which of the following (dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) is due to 100% genetic causes?

HYPERTROPHIC

6

What type of murmur is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?


Harsh systolic ejection murmur

Symptoms:
Diastolic heart failure
Exertional dyspnea
Anginal pain
Intractable heart failure
Arrhythmias

7

What is an amyloid?

Which cardiomyopathy is it associated with?

Misfolded protein --> BETA -PLEADED SHEET --> FIBRILS!

-Deposits in extracellular space
-Causes tissue damage

RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY
- LV normal but STIFF
- Left Atrium dilates due to stiffness of LV
- diastolic heart failure due to decreased filling

8

What are the 3 most common features of amyloid deposits, regardless of protein?
(Hint: when is it red, when is it green)

1. B-pleated sheet” configuration

2. Congo red staining in tissue

3.“apple-green” under polarized light

9

Infections with ______ are the most common etiology of myocarditis in the US

coxsackie A & B

-Cytomegalovirus
Human immunodeficiency virus
are 2nd

10

What are some non-infectious causes of myocarditis?


1. Hypersensitivity reactions
2. Rheumatic fever
3.Giant cell myocarditis
4. Sarcoidosis

11

What can myocarditis progress into?

Dilated cardiomyopathy

- arrhythmia
-acute congestive heart failure

viral infection today, but no presentation for years
as the virus resolves there may be smoldering inflammation that goes on for years = DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY
how do we know if coxsackie? (can find enteroviral particles in myocardium)

12

Tuberculosis*
Malignancy*

result in what type of pericarditis?

HEMORRHAGIC

TB also results in caseous pericarditis