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Microbio & Imm. > Microbial Genetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microbial Genetics Deck (21):
1

The size of prokaryotic (bacterial) genomes is _____ (smaller/larger) than Eukaryotic genomes (human cells)

Smaller (about 5 million base pairs compared to about 3 billion base pairs)

2

Number of chromosomes in a prokaryotic cell?

One (always haploid)

3

____ typically have circular chromosomes, while ____ typically have linear chromosomes

Prokaryotes, eukaryotes

4

____ are small circular molecules of DNA that replicate independently. They are pretty unique to prokaryotes, but not found in all.

Plasmids

5

In prokaryotic cells (bacteria), chromosomes are typically found in the ____, while in eukaryotic cells they are found in _____

Cytosol, nucleus

6

When organisms replicate their genomes and pass them on to the next generation it is called ____ gene transfer

Vertical

7

When organisms exchange genes between cells of the same generation it is called ____ gene transfer

Horizontal

8

Name the 3 types of horizontal gene transfer used by bacteria

1. Transformation
2. Transduction
3. Conjugation

9

What enzymes can perform DNA repair?

DNA Polymerases

10

A change in the nucleotide base sequence of a genome is known as:

Mutation

11

Name the two types of mutation and which one is most common?

1. Point mutations (most common)
2. Frameshift mutations

12

Which type of mutation only affects one base pair?

Point mutation

13

Radiation is a mutagen. Name 1 type of ionizing radiation and 1 type of non-ionizing radiation

I: x-ray, gamma-ray
NI: UV rays

14

The first described representative of a species, isolated and found in nature

Wild type

15

Descendant of a cell that does not repair a mutation

Mutant

16

What test is used to test chemicals for their potential to cause mutations and potentially cancer?

Ames test

17

What is the purpose of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)?

Multiplying DNA in Vitro

18

Name the 3 steps of PCR

1. Denaturation
2. Priming
3. Extension

19

Intentional modification of an organism's genomes for practical purposes

Recombinant DNA Technology

20

Nucleic acid molecules that deliver a gene into a cell (Ex: Plasmid or Virus Bacteriophage)

Vectors

21

Name an artificial method of recombinant DNA technology

Microinjection