Flashcards in Microbial Genetics Deck (21):
The size of prokaryotic (bacterial) genomes is _____ (smaller/larger) than Eukaryotic genomes (human cells)
Smaller (about 5 million base pairs compared to about 3 billion base pairs)
Number of chromosomes in a prokaryotic cell?
One (always haploid)
____ typically have circular chromosomes, while ____ typically have linear chromosomes
____ are small circular molecules of DNA that replicate independently. They are pretty unique to prokaryotes, but not found in all.
In prokaryotic cells (bacteria), chromosomes are typically found in the ____, while in eukaryotic cells they are found in _____
When organisms replicate their genomes and pass them on to the next generation it is called ____ gene transfer
When organisms exchange genes between cells of the same generation it is called ____ gene transfer
Name the 3 types of horizontal gene transfer used by bacteria
What enzymes can perform DNA repair?
A change in the nucleotide base sequence of a genome is known as:
Name the two types of mutation and which one is most common?
1. Point mutations (most common)
2. Frameshift mutations
Which type of mutation only affects one base pair?
Radiation is a mutagen. Name 1 type of ionizing radiation and 1 type of non-ionizing radiation
I: x-ray, gamma-ray
NI: UV rays
The first described representative of a species, isolated and found in nature
Descendant of a cell that does not repair a mutation
What test is used to test chemicals for their potential to cause mutations and potentially cancer?
What is the purpose of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)?
Multiplying DNA in Vitro
Name the 3 steps of PCR
Intentional modification of an organism's genomes for practical purposes
Recombinant DNA Technology
Nucleic acid molecules that deliver a gene into a cell (Ex: Plasmid or Virus Bacteriophage)