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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (196)
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1

Eukaryote

True nucleus, Protozoa

2

Prokaryote

No true nucleus, bacteria

3

Neisseria

Gram negative diplococci, coffee bean shaped

4

Vibrio

Gram negative, Comma shaped

5

Campylobacter

Gram Negative, M/C/C diarrhea

6

Pseudomonas

Blue/Green pus, warm and moist places

7

Francisella

Rabbit Fever

8

Legionella

Water borne

9

Spirochaetales

Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira (bacteria)

10

Chlamydiaceae

Chlamydia (bacteria)

11

Mycoplasmataceae

Mycoplasma, atypical pneumonia, lacks cell wall, Penicillin stops cell wall synthesis

12

Rickettsiaceae

Spread by insects

13

Coxiella

Spread by milk, Q fever

14

Hepatitis B Virus

DNA virus

15

Paramyxoviridae

Measles, Mumps virus

16

Coronaviridae

Corona virus, SARS in China 2002

17

Rhabdoviridae

Rabies Virus, hydropobia, bullet shaped

18

Filoviridae

Ebola

19

Reoviridae

Polio, Coxsackie

20

Togaviridae

Rubella (German Measles)

21

Flaviviridae

Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus, St. Louis Encephalitis (Jaundice and mosquitos)

22

Caliciviridae

Norwalk virus, causes gastroenteritis,
Seen on cruise ships

23

IgA

Secretory AB
Found in mucous membranes (saliva, tears), Breast milk
8 binding sites

24

IgD

Helps IgG

25

IgE

Parasitic and allergic infections
Seen in Hodgkin's (Reed-Sternberg Cells)

26

IgG

First to increase at second exposure
Most numerous
Crosses placenta (Gee ma, thanks!)
Anamnestic response (Never forgets)

27

IgM

10 binding sites
Largest and heaviest
First to increase at first exposure
Non-specific

28

Interleukin I

Made by macrophages

29

Interleukin II

Made by CD4 (t-helper) cells

30

Interleukin III

Made by big bone marrow

31

MHC

Self vs. non-self
Tissue graft rejection and organ rejection
T-cells --> MHC I
B-cells --> MHC I and II

32

Staph Aureus Pneumonic

STOIC
Scaled Skin Syndrome
Toxic Shock
Osteomyelitis (M/C/C staph aureus --> hospital staff)
Impetigo (honey crusted lesions)
Carbuncles (many furuncles --> a carload of furuncles)

33

Strep Pyogenes Pneumonic

SERGIS
Strep throat
Erysipelas --> St. Anthony's fire
Rheumatic Fever --> Group A beta hemolytic strep
Glomerulonephritis
Impetigo
Scarlet Fever (Strawberry tongue)

34

Complement System

Enhances phagocytosis or cell lysis
Classic and alternate pathways meet at C3B
C5B-C9 --> membrane attack complex
C9 is the end of the system

35

Aschoff Bodies

Rheumatic fever (McCallums Patch)

36

Babes Ernst Granules

Metachromatic granules seen in Diphtheria

37

Downey Cell

Mononucleosis
Don't let Mono get you Down

38

Epithelioid Hystiocyte

TB, Giant epitheloid cell

39

Gohn Complex

TB (inactive phase)
Calcium jail around the mycobacterium

40

Guarneri Bodies

Small Pox (Variola)

41

Gummas

Tertiary Syphilis

42

Koplik Spots

Measles (Rubeola)
On buccal mucosa, white/bluish spots

43

Lipofuscin

Old age pigment
Brown's Atrophy

44

Lewy Bodies

Parkinson's (AKA. Paralysis Agitans)

45

Mallory Bodies

Hepatitis (alcoholism)

46

Negri Bodies

Rabies (hydrophobia)

47

Reed Sternberg

Hodgkin's

48

Russell Bodies

Plasma cells
Multiple Myeloma

49

Natural Active Immunity

Exposed to the disease

50

Artificial Active Immunity

Injection of weakened or dead virus

51

Natural Passive Immunity

Given AB in utero/breastfeeding

52

Artificial Passive Immunity

Injection of preformed AB

53

Endotoxin

Toxin from lipopolysaccharide layer of cell
Heat Stable

54

Exotoxin

Toxin outside the cell from cell waste products
Heat Labile

55

Fomite

inanimate object's as vector

56

Hapten

Partial antigen or half antigen
Does not stimulate immune response

57

Neurotoxin

Toxin that affects the NS (botulism, tetanus)

58

Opsonin

Enhance phagocytosis

59

Prion

Acellular protein which denatures other proteins
Cannot be autoclaved

60

Type I Hypersensitivity

Anaphylactic
Bronchial Asthma (allergy)
Bee sting, hay fever
IgE, Mast cell, Histamine, basophils

61

Type II Hypersensitivity

Cytotoxic
Goodpasteur's (lung and kidney)
Erythroblastosis fetalis (Coombs Anemia)
Blood transfusion
Myasthenia Gravis
IgG
2 things --> Antigen and AB

62

Type III Hypersensitivity

Immune-complex mediated
Lupus, RA
Arthus reaction --> local necrosis
Serum sickness --> systemic
IgG and Complement
3 things --> Antigen, AB and Complement

63

Type IV Hypersensitivity

Delayed (Cell-mediated)
TB
Transplant rejeciton
Contact dermatitis
T-cells, lymphocytes
NOT AB MEDIATED

64

Autotroph

Inorganic material

65

Heterotroph

Organic material

66

Saprophyte

Dead/decaying animal

67

Parasite

Living organisms

68

Facultative

Presence OR absence of O2

69

Obligate

Must have O2 or Must not have O2

70

Microaerophilic

Reduced O2 (high altitude)
Candle jar culture

71

Symbiosis

one or both benefit

72

Mutualism

Both benefit

73

Synergism

Both benefit and cannot survive without the other

74

Commensalism

One benefits, other is unaffected

75

Zoonosis

Transfer of disease from animal to human

76

Ames Test

Carcinogenicity
Uses Salmonella typhimurium

77

ASO Titer Test

Antistreptolysin O titre
Tests Strep Pyogenes

78

BOD Test

Biological Oxygen Demand
Best test for water pollution

79

Catalase Test

Staph (+) vs. Strep (-)

80

Chick Embryo Culture Test

Virus culture
Cannot grow in agar

81

Chocolate Agar Test

AKA. Thayer Martin Agar or Heated Blood Agar
Gonorrhea

82

Coagulase Test

Staph Aureus (+) vs. other Staph (-)
Pathogenic vs. non-pathogenic

83

Coombs Test

Tests RBC antigens
Type II Hypersensitivity
Hemolytic anemia, Erythroblastosis fetalis, Rh factor

84

Giemsa Stain Test

Protozoa

85

HLA DR5/CD4

AIDS (ELISA test checks DNA, Western Blot checks proteins)
If 2 ELSIA are + --> western blot
If western blot + --> AIDS

86

Mannitol Salt Test

Staph

87

Paul Bunnel Test

Heterophile agglutination test for Mono

88

Quellung Reaction Test

Quellung = Swelling
Swelling of capsule of Strep Pneumoniae

89

Sabouraud Agar Test

Test for Fungi

90

Tissue Culture Test

Virus Culture
Cannot grow in agar

91

Weil Felix Test

Serology test
Positive for all Rickettsia (EXCEPT Coxiella burnetii --> Q fever)
Antigen for test --> Proteus vulgaris

92

Widal Test

Typhoid fever test

93

Tzank Test

Look for altered epithelioid cells
Herpes Zoster and simplex
Also Varicella

94

Syphilis Tests

Wasserman
VDRL
Darkfield

95

Tuberculosis Tests

Mantous Test --> PPD
Tine Test --> skin prick
Ziehl Nielson Staining
Acid Fast --> My ass is fast
Chest x-ray --> Gohn Complex
BCG --> mycobacterium bovis
Best test --> Sputum culture

96

Mononucleosis Tests

Heterophile antibody
Heterophile agglutination --> Paul Bunnel
Downey Cell --> don't let mono get you down
Monospot

97

Sterilization/Autoclave is ineffective against:

Prions

98

Inactivated Vaccination

Salk --> Polio
Rabies

99

Toxoid Vaccination

Tetnus
Botulism

100

Live Attenuated Vaccination

MMR
Sabin --> oral

101

What disease can be acquired post-vaccination?

Guillian Barre (AKA. Post-infectious polyradiculopathy)

102

Case Control Study

Identifies risk factor

103

Double Blind Study

Eliminate placebo effect

104

Retrospective Study

Look back, go back in time

105

Blue/Green Pus

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Un-sanitized hot tub
Fluoresces blue under UV light from Pyocyanin and fluorescein pigments

106

Red Pus

Serratia marcenscens

107

White Pus

Chlamydia

108

Yellow Pus

Staph Aureus

109

Yellow/Green Pus

Gonorrhea

110

Iodine

Pre-op disinfectant

111

MRSA

Methycilline Resistant Staph Aureus
Hospitals use Vancomycin

112

Sulfa

Competes with PABA --> Para-amino Benzoic Acid

113

Tetracycline

Inhibits protein synthesis
Turns teeth yellow/brown or gray

114

Ehrlich

First treatment for syphilis

115

Flemming

Discovered Penicillin --> 1928

116

Iwanowski

Discovered the virus

117

Jenner

Developed Smallpox (Variola) vaccine

118

Koch

Anthrax vaccine.
4 postulates

119

Lister

Antisepsis

120

Pasteur

Father of Pathology/Germ Theory
Rabies Vaccine

121

Pyusner

Discovered Prions --> Mad Cow

122

Reed

Yellow Fever

123

Sabin

Live polio vaccine, oral

124

Salk

Dead polio vaccine, injection

125

Semmelweiss

Wash hands before delivering baby --> reduced puerperal fever (AKA. Childbed Fever)

126

Conjugation

plasmid DNA transfer via sex pilus (bacteria)

127

Transduciton

Bacteriophage transfers genetic material between bacteria

128

Transformation

Direct uptake of free DNA

129

CDC

Stats, not research
Atlanta, GA

130

EPA

Monitors soil, air and water quality
Can't do anything

131

FDA

Regulates health products released to public

132

NIH

Research, not stats
Bethesda, MD

133

OSHA

Makes rules concerning occupational toxicity levels of hazardous materials

134

USDA

Responsible for milk and milk production

135

Emerging

New disease or rapid increase of a disease in incidence of in a geographic range

136

Endemic

Small number of cases in specific location

137

Incidence

Number of NEW cases in a given TIME PERIOD

138

Prevalance

TOTAL number of cases at a particular POINT IN TIME

139

Filtration

Filters big stuff (uses screens)
Primary

140

Flocculation

Aluminum tricholride --> causes clumping to occur
Primary

141

Sedimentation

Precipitate falls
Primary

142

Sludge Digestion

Add anaerobic bacteria
Primary

143

Sand Filtration

Removes Anaerobic bacteria
Trickling filter
Secondary

144

Aeration

Adds oxygen to water to improve color and taste
Kills remaining anaerobic bacteria
Decreases BOD
Secondary

145

Chlorination

Kills remaining bacteria
Secondary

146

Hymenolepis nana

Dwarf tapeworm

147

Taenia saginata

Beef tapeworm

148

Taenia solium

Pork tapeworm
Cysticercosis

149

Diphyllobothrium latum

May cause B12 deficiency
Freshwater salmon

150

Echinococcus granulosus

Dog tapeworm
Also found in wolves
Hydatid cyst in live and lung

151

Shistosoma japonicum

Blood fluke
Swimmer's itch
M/C/C of death by a helminth worldwide

152

Paragonimus westermani

Pulmonary (lung) fluke
Crayfish, mouth

153

Ascaris lumbricoides

Ass is round --> Roundworm
M/C roundworm
M/C Helminth infection worldwide

154

Wuchereria bancrofti

Filiariasus
Mosquito
Elephantitis --> lymphatic blockage

155

Necator americanus

Hookworm
Fecal contaminated soil
Wear shoes to prevent this
M/C Hookworm in US

156

Enterobius vermicularis

Pinworm (Threadworm)
Anus-finger-mouth
Scotch tape test
Nocturnal
M/C Helminth in US

157

Onchocerca volvulus

River blindness
Africa

158

Loa loa

River eye worm
African eye worm

159

Trichonella spiralis

Trichinosis
Raw pork
Lives in striated muscles
DX on x-ray --> gastrocnemius

160

Trichuris trichura

Whipworm

161

Capsomere

subunit of the protein coat "capsid" of a virus particle

162

1st virus ever discovered

Tobacco Mosaic Virus

163

Viroid

Single Stranded RNA

164

Virus

DNA or RNA
Contains one or the other, NOT both

165

Arboviruses/Arthropod borne viruses transmission

Mosquitos

166

Polio transmission

Oral/Fecal

167

Hepatitis transmission

A = Oral/Fecal
B = Sexual transmission
C = Transfusions, tattooing, possibly sexual

168

Herpes Simplex Type 1

Fever blisters (Cold sores)
Can be in genome of Trigeminal

169

Herpes Simplex Type 2

Genital herpes

170

Herpes Zoster

Shingles in adults
Does not cross midline
Follows dermatome

171

Molluscum Contagiosum

Pink cauliflower lesion on female genitalia

172

Papovavirus (aka. papillomavirus)

Warts
Casual Contact

173

Rubella

German Measles (3-day measles)
Most susceptible in 1st trimester

174

Rubeola

Red Measles
Koplik Spots on buccal mucosa --> white/blusish spots
3 C's = cough, coryza (runny nose), conjunctivitis

175

Vaccinia

Cow Pox

176

Varicella

Chicken Pox
Maculopapularvesicular rash

177

Variola

Small pox
Guarneri bodies
1977 = eradicated

178

Coxsackie

B = childhood dysentery
Hand, foot, and mouth disease

179

Hantavirus

spread by rodents, including chipmunks and pairiedogs

180

Polio

Affects anterior horn (alpha motor)
Bulbar type produces respiratory paralysis

181

Adenovirus

Causes conjunctivitis, pharyngitis

182

Influenza

Antigenic shift and/or drift

183

Mumps

Sidomegalic paramyxoid virus
parotiditis, leads to LMN disease of CN 7 (Bells Palsy)
Sterility from Oophoritis or orchitis

184

RSV

Respiratory Syncytial virus
Croup and Bronchiolitis

185

Rabies

Bullet shaped under electron microscope
RNA, rhabdo virus
Negri bodies in brain
Hydrophobia

186

Reyes Syndrome

Negative reaction to aspirin taken for a viral infection (M/C flu)
Fatty liver and encephalopathy
Can be fatal

187

AIDS

Reverse transcriptase. RNA --> DNA
CD4 cells = T-helper cells
Latent persistant infection, allows opportunistic infections

188

Pneumocystis carinii

#1 fungal infection in AIDS
#1 cause of death in AIDS (from pneumonia)

189

Toxoplasmosis

#1 parasitic infection in AIDS
Spread by cat feces

190

Kaposi sarcoma

#1 death by cancer in AIDS

191

Hepatitis A

Fecal/Oral
Not a carrier for life
RNA
Get it and get over it

192

Hepatitis B

Sexual, IV drug abuse
Carrier for life
Liver cancer (M/C/C)
DNA

193

Hepatitis C

Tattoos, blood transfusion
Carrier for life
RNA
Screen blood

194

Hepatitis D

Co-infeciton with Hep B
Dane particle
Only replicates in presence of Hep B

195

Bubonic Plague (Black Death)

Athropod Borne
Yersinia Pestis (Pasteurella pestis)
Rat flea
Bubos = neck and axillary lymph node enlargement
Death by asphyxiation

196

Tuleremia

Rabbit Fever
Frabcusella tularensis
Rabbits, squirrels
Hunters at risk