Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (92):
What are the 2 types of staph?
Example of coagulase positive staph
Examples of coagulase negative staph
What are gram positive cocci in chains more commonly known as?
What are the 3 categories of strep?
What are the 2 a-haemolytic strep?
Which organism is non-haemolytic strep?
Common infections caused by staph aureus?
What infections tend to be caused by staph epidermis?
Artificial heart valves
What infections are caused by group A beta-haemolytic strep?
Severe skin infections
What infections are caused by group B beta-haemolytic strep?
Meningitis in neonates
What infections does enterococcus tend to cause?
What bacterial skin infections is staph aureus associated with?
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
What skin infections can be caused by strep pyogenes?
Treatment of choice for skin infections caused by staph aureus
Treatment of choice for strep pyogenes
What is necrotising fasciitis?
Bacterial infection spreading along fascial planes below skin surface = rapid tissue destruction
What are the organisms that cause type 1 necrotising fasciiitis?
Mixed anaerobes & coliforms
When does type 1 necrotising fasciitis normally occur?
What organisms cause type II necrotising fasciitis?
Group A strep
Treatment of necrotising fasciitis
Urgent surgical opinion & debridement
What type of ringworm infects the scalp?
What type of ringworm infects the beard?
What type of ringworm infects the body?
What type of ringworm infects the hand?
What type of ringworm infects the nails?
What type of ringworm infects the groin?
What type of ringworm infects the foot?
Tinea pedis (athletes foot)
Pathogenesis of dermatophyte
Fungus enters abraded or soggy skin
Hyphae spread in stratum corneum
Infects keratinised tissue only (skin, hair, nails)
Increased epidermal turnover causes scaling
Inflammatory response provoked (dermis)
Hair follicles & shafts invaded
Lesion grows outward and heals in centre ('ring' appearance)
Who does scalp ringworm mainly affect?
Are dermatophyte infections more common in men or women?
What are the 3 sources of dermatophyte infection?
What is wood's light.,
A UV light used in a darkened room
What organisms is a woods light used to identify?
Treatment for dermatophyte infections of small areas of infected skin
Amorolfine (topical nail paint)
Treatment of scalp dermatophyte infections
Where on the body are candida infections seen?
Under breasts in females
Abdominal skin folds
Nappy area in babies
Treatment of candida skin infection
What is the highly infectious chronic crusted form of scabies called?
What is the incubation period of scabies?
Clinical presentation of scabies
Intensely itchy rash affecting finger webs, wrists, genital area
Treatment of scabies
Malathion lotion (applied all over body and left overnight then washed the next day)
Who should benzyl benzoate be avoided in?
What are pediculus capitis?
What are pediculus corporis?
What are pthirus pubis?
Treatment of lice
What virus causes both chicken pox & shingles?
Varicella zoster virus
Clinical presentation of chicken pox
Macules to papules to vesicles to scars to recovery
Complications of chicken pox
Secondary bacterial infection
What can cause neonatal VSV?
Chicken pox in mother in late pregnancy
What is shingles?
Reactivation of Herpes Zoster virus
Presentation of shingles
Rash in dermatomal distribution
Often in elderly & immunocomprimised
When is an urgent referral to opthamology indicated for shingles?
If the shingles is affecting the opthalamic division of the trigeminal nerve
Clinical presentation of Ramsay-Hunt syndrome
Vesicles & pain in auditory canal and throat
Irritation of CNVIII (deafness, vertigo, tinnitus)
How long does primary gingivostomatitis caused by HSB last?
What does HSV type 1 cause?
Half of genital herpes
What does HSV type 2 cause?
Rare cause of oral lesions
Causes half of genital herpes
Encephalitis/disseminate infection (particularly in neonates)
What analogue can be used to treat HSV & VSV?
Triggers of erythema multiforme
Mycoplasma pneumoniae bacterium
Appearance of erythema multiforme
Target lesions with erythema
Appearance of molluscum contagiosum
Fleshy, firm, umbilicated, pearlescent nodules
Who is molluscum contagiosum common in?
Management of molluscum contagiosum
Self limiting but takes months to disappear
Can be treated with focal liquid nitrogen
What virus causes warts?
What can be applied topically to help get rid of warts?
What HPVs are most associated with genital warts?
Types 6 & 11
Which HPVs are associated with cervical cancer?
Types 16 & 18
What is herpangina?
Blistering rash at back of mouth
What causes herpangina?
- coxsackie virus
Who does hand, foot and mouth disease typically present in?
Typically children (family outbreaks)
What causes hand, foot and mouth disease?
Enteroviruses (especially coxsackie virus)
What is erythema infectiosum also known as?
What causes slapped cheek?
Presentation of erythema infectiosum?
Slapped cheek appearance
As facial rash fades a lacy macular rash on the body appears
How may erythema infectiosum present particularly in adults?
Acute polyarthritis of the small joints
Complications of parvovirus B19
Aplastic crises (sudden drop in Hb)
How is erythema infectiosum diagnosed?
Parvovirus B19 IgM test
What is orf?
Virus of sheep
Clinical presentation of orf
Firm, fleshy nodule on hands
What is the presentation of the primary infection of syphilis?
Painless ulcers at the site of entry
What is the secondary phase of syphilis infection?
Red rash over body
Prominent on soles & palms of hands
Mucous membrane "snail track" ulcers
What bacteria causes syphilis?
Bacterium treponema pallidum
How is syphilis diagnosed?
Blood test or swab of chancre for PCR
How is syphilis treated?
What is the vector of lymes disease?
What bacteria causes lyme disease?
Early presentation of lyme disease
Late presentation of lyme disease
How is lyme disease diagnosed?
Antibody to organism
Therapy of lyme disease
Doxycycline or amoxicillin