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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (57):
1

what are the different classifications of microbiology

acute pyogenic (bacterial) meningitis

acute aseptic (viral) meningitis

acute focal suppurative infection (brain abscess, subdural and extradural)

chronic bacterial infection (tuberculosis)

2

what is acute encephalitis

infection of brain parenchyma

3

what is seen microscopically in pyogenic meningitis

neutrophils in the subarachnoid space

4

what virus' commonlt causes viral meningitis

Enteroviruses
e.g. ECHO virus

5

Ix of viral meningitis

viral stool culture, throat swab and CSF PCR

6

what virus's can cause encephalitis

herpes simplex
varicella zoster
CMV
HIV
Measles

7

Tx of viral encephalitis

high dose IV acyclovir

8

what causes cerebral abscesses

spread from an intracranial infection such as mastoiditis, but usually are spread to brain through the blood stream commonly from heart and lungs

9

what bacteria commonly cause cerebral abscess

strep viridans
staph aureus

toxoplasma gondii in immunocompromised

10

Sx of brain abscess

headache
focal neuro deficits
papilloedema
N + V

no signs of infection i.e. fever, chills

11

what appears on CT or MRI in brain abscess

ring-enchaning lesion

12

definitive Ix of brain abscess

stereotaxic brain biopsy

13

what is the common cause of bacterial meningitis in children

h. influenza

14

what is the common cause of bacterial meningitis in adults

s. pneumoniae

15

what is the common cause of bacterial meningitis in immunocompromised

listeria monocytogenes

16

what causes Sx in Neisseria Meningitis

endotoxin

17

Tx of TB meningitis

Isoniazid + rifampicin

18

signs of bacterial meningitis

fever
stiff neck
alteration in consciousness

headache
vomiting
pyrexia
photophobia

19

in a lumbar puncture, what are the tubes sent for

Tube 1. Hematology: cell count, differential

Tube 2. Microbiology: gram stain, cultures

Tube 3. Chemistry: glucose, protein

Tube 4. Hematology: cell count, differential

20

what is aseptic meningitis

non-pyogenic bacterial meningitis

21

how is CSF in aseptic meningitis

A low number of WBC
A minimally elevated protein
A normal glucose

22

what people should undergo CT prior to LP

immunocompromised
Hx of CNS
new onset seizure
papilloedema
abnormal level of consciousness
focal neuro deficit

23

empirical antibiotic therapy for meningitis

IV CEFTRIAXONE 2g bd

penicillin allergic = chloramphenicol with vancomycin

24

antibiotic therapy for listeria meningitis

IV Ampicillin/Amoxicillin

penicillin allergic = co-trimoxazole

25

what needs to be given to all patients suspected of bacterial meningitis

steroids

26

what is prophylaxis for bacterial meningitis

500 mg ciprofloxacin orally as a single dose for adults and children aged more than 12 years

27

how does infection progress to sepsis - what are the stages

colonisation >> infection >> SIRS >> sepsis >> severe sepsis >> septic shock

28

what is the criteria for SIRS

>2 of the following

Temp >38 or <36
HR >90 beats/min
RR >20/min
WCC >12,000/mm3 or <4,000/mm3 or >10% immature neutrophils

29

what can cause SIRS

infection
trauma
burns
pancreatitis

30

what is the definition of sepsis

SIRS with a presumed or confirmed infectious process

31

what is the definition of severe sepsis

Sepsis with signs of a least one acute organ dysfunction

32

what is the definition of septic shock

severe sepsis with hypotension refractory to adequate volume resuscitation

33

Tx for Sepsis caused by intra-abdominal infection - empirical

Amoxicillin + Gentamicin + Metronidazole

34

what is SEPSIS 6

Take 3, give 3

Take:
Lactate, Blood Cultures, Urine output

Give:
Oxygen, Fluids, IV empirical antibiotics

35

what are aerobes

Organisms that grow better with oxygen, but can also grow without it

e.g. staph, strep, enterococci, coliforms

36

what are strict aerobes

organisms that require oxygen

e.g. pseudomonas sp.

37

what are strict aerobes sensitive to

gentamicin

38

what are anaerobes

organisms that will not grow in the presence of oxygen

- clostridium sp, bacteroides sp

39

what are anaerobes sensitive to

metronidazole

40

what are coliforms

organisms that inhabit the large bowel

41

Tx of coliforms

gentamicin

42

what can peritonitis

perforated duodenal ulcer/appendix/diverticulum/tumour

surgery

43

what are enterococcus sensitive to

amoxicillin

44

most common STI in sexual health clinics

chlamydia

45

presentation of chylamydia

Post coital or intermenstrual bleeding
Lower abdominal pain
Dyspareunia
Urethral discharge
Dysuria
Urethritis

46

Ix of chylamydia

female - vulvovaginal swab

male - first void ruin, rectal swab

47

Tx of chylamydia

Azithromycin 1G stat
Doxycycline 100mg BD x 1 week

48

Tx of gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone 500 mg IM

Azithromycin 1g

49

what form of HPV causes genital warts

HPV 6/11

50

HPV Tx

Podophyllotoxin (Warticon)
Imiquimod (Aldara)

51

what bacteria causes syphilis

treponema pallidum

52

Viral shedding is higher with which type of Genital Herpes simplex virus

type 2

53

what bacteria is seen in normal vaginal flora

Lactobacillus spp
- produces lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide

54

Predisposing factors for candida infection

recent antibiotic therapy
high oestrogen levels
poorly controlled diabetes
immunocompromised patients

55

Tx of candida infection

topical clotrimazole
oral fluconazole

56

Sx of bacterial vaginosis

Thin, watery, fishy-smelling vaginal discharge

57

Tx of bacterial vaginolsis

oral metronidazole