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Flashcards in Microbiology: Infection Control Deck (5)
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- Apply to all patients receiving care regardless of their diagnosis or presumed infection status
- Apply to contact with blood, other body fluids and secretions, mucous membranes or broken skin

Precautions include
- Correct hand washing
- Care with handling equipment and materials contaminated with body fluids
- Proper disposal of contaminated materials (dressings and needles)
- Processing of instruments and equipment (cleaning and sterilisation/disinfection)



- Used for patients with known infection; requires additional precautions beyond standard

3 types
- Airborne precautions
- Droplet precautions
- Contact precautions


Airborne Precautions

- Occurs due to spread of small droplets or dust particles containing infectious agent
- Can remain suspended in air for some time and can travel further than 1m
- Pathogen can persists in a form that can tolerate dry conditions and prolonged periods outside of host
- E.g. spores and dormant stages of some organisms (e.g. bacteria causing tuberculosis)

Precautions include:
- Isolation of patient in a room with doors closed and windows open
- P2 masks for staff and visitors: Higher grade of filtering and fit more snugly on face
- Mask must be worn by patient when being transported around the facility


Droplet Precautions

- Transmission occurs due to spread of relatively larger droplets
- Cannot remain suspended in air for long and transmission is within 1m
- Precautions are for patients with (e.g. respiratory infection)

Precautions include
- Patients should wear a mask when being transported
- Isolation not required if
- Patient can be in a ward with patient of same infection
- There is a 1m space around the patients


Contact Precautions

Precautions for
- People with skin infections
- People with faecal incontinence
- Some intestinal infections in children
- Significant mode of transport may be through fomites (can include medical equipment such as blood pressure cuffs, stethoscopes, bed sheets and also any surfaces in close contact with source of pathogen)