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Clin Med Nutrition > Micronutrients > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micronutrients Deck (33)
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1

B1
water soluble

Thiamin - aerobic energy metabolism
Etiology: alcoholism, malabsorbtion, dialysis
Clin Findings: (early) anorexia, muscle cramps, irritibility; (late) beri beri, korsakoff syndrome

2

B2
water soluble

Riboflavin - energy metabolism
Etiology: occurs in combo w/other deficiencies; dietary inadequacy, med interactions, EtOH, undernutrition
Clin Findings: cheilosis/angular stomatitis; glossitis, seb dermatitis, weakess

3

B3
water soluble

Niacin (Nicotinic acid) - cofactor for energy metabolism
Etiology: diets based on corn, EtOH, nutrient drug interactions
Clin Findings: (nonspecific) anorexia, weakness, irritibility stomatitis, glossitis (severe) Triad of Pellagra

4

beriberi

Symptoms: weight loss, emotional disturbances, impaired sensory perception, weakness and pain in the limbs, and periods of irregular heart rate.
Dry beriberi affects the nervous system
Wet beriberi affects the cardiovascular system and other bodily systems

5

korsakoff syndrome

Thiamine (B1) deficiency
anterograde/retrograde amnesia; confabulation (invented memories); meager content in conversation; lack of insight; apathy - the patients lose interest in things quickly and generally appear indifferent to change.

6

cheilosis/angular stomatitis

inflammation/cracking of the corners of the mouth/lips

7

Triad of Pellagra

diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis

8

B5
water soluble

Pantothenic acid - fatty acid metabolism
etiology: only in experiments with low B5 diets
Clinical findings: GI, muscle cramps, depression, ataxia, paresthesia

9

B6
water soluble

Pyroxidine - protein synthesis, neurotransmitters
Etiology: medication interactions, BC pills, EtOH
Clin Findings: glossitis, cheilosis, weakness--severe cases peripheral neuropathy, anemia, seizures

10

B7
water soluble

Biotin - gene expression, gluconeogenesis
Etiology: inborn errors of metabolism (rare that diet causes this)
Clin Findings: mental changes, anorexia, paresthesia, scaling rash around eyes/nose/mouth/extremities

11

B9
water soluble

Folate - DNA/protein synthesis
Etiology: inadequate dietary intake, EtOH, decreased absorption (drug interactions), increased requirement (pregnancy, anemia), and loss (dialysis)
Clin findings: megaloblastic anemia (impairs DNA synthesis, causes continued RBC growth w/out division)

12

B12
water soluble

cyanocobalamin - oxidation of fatty acids, DNA synthesis, erythropoiesis
Etiology: decreased absorption (no production of factor needed to absorb, competition with bacteria, pancreatic insufficiency, crohns disease, meds etc)
Clin Findings: megaloblastic anemia (impairs DNA synthesis, causes continued RBC growth w/out division); glossitis, anorexia, diarrhea, neuro

13

Vitamin C

ascorbic acid - antioxidant, synth of peptide hormones, iron absorption, collagen synthesis
Etiology - dietary inadequacy, pt w/ chronic illness (cancer, kidney disease), smokers
Clin Findings

14

water soluble vitamins (9)
BC-FN-PP-RTV

biotin, cyanocobalamin, folate, niacin, pyroxidine, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin C

15

fat soluble vitamins (4)

Vitamin A, D, E, K

16

Vitamin A

retinol normal function - vision, cell growth, immune function
Etiology: fat malabsorption, infection, measles, EtOH, protein-energy malnutrition
Clin Med: xeropthalma (not enough tears), night blindness, impaired embryonic development, immune dysfunction, follicular hyperkeratosis

17

Vitamin D

normal function - regulating blood Ca levels, bone health, immune function, inflammation
Etiology: aging, lack of sunlight exposure, fat malabsorption, very dark skin
Clin findings: Rickets in children (impaired mineralization in growing bones); osteomalacia in adults

18

Vitamin E

function - antioxidant, protects cell membranes from oxidative damage
Etiology: severe malnutrition, fat malabsorption, genetic abnormalities of vit E metabolism/transport
Clin Findings: peripheral neuropathy, skeletal muscle atrophy, spino cerebellar ataxia, retinopathy

19

Vitamin K

normal function - activates part of clotting cascade
Etiology: fat malabsorption, liver disease, antibiotic use
clinical findings: elevated prothrombin time, bleeding

20

Niacin toxicity

B3 - cutaneous flushing, gastric irritation, elevated liver enzymes, hyperglycemia, gout, itchy/dry skin

21

Pyroxidine toxicity

B6 - sensory neuropathy (sometimes irreversible), flushing, gout, maculopathy

22

Folate toxicity

B9 - hematologic responses

23

Vitamin C toxicity

gastric irritation, flatulence, diarrhea, false tests for urine glucose

24

Vitamin A toxicity

most toxic of all vitamins: teratogenic (accutane), nausea, headache, fatigue, appetite loss, increased ICP, cerebral edema, vertigo, diplopia, bulging fontanelles, dry skin

25

Vitamin D toxicity

not common; hypercalcemia, anorexia, N/V, hypertension, hypercalciuria, muscular weakness, joint pain, death

26

Vitamin E toxicity

least toxic of fat soluble vitamins; can impair function of vitamin K and interfere with normal clotting

27

Vitamin K toxicity

decreased effectiveness of anti coagulants (warfarin)

28

mineral micronutrients

calcium, sodium, chloride, phosphorous, potassium

29

calcium

function: bone mineralization, regulation of PTH, muscle function
etiology: absorption hindered by vit D deficiency, suppression of PTH, oxalic acid, hypoalbuminemia
clin findings: rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults

30

sodium

function: osmotic pressure, cell permeability, acid base balance, nervous syst stimulation, muscle contraction
etiology: excessive diaphoresis, overhydration, water retention
clin findings: n/v, dizziness, resp arrest, seizure, coma, brain damage, death