"Microscopic Anatomy Male Reproductive Margaret Maimone" 4/6 Flashcards Preview

Unit 8 > "Microscopic Anatomy Male Reproductive Margaret Maimone" 4/6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in "Microscopic Anatomy Male Reproductive Margaret Maimone" 4/6 Deck (36):
1

What is the endocrine function of the testes?

Produce steroid hormones, like testosterone

2

What is the exocrine function of the testes?

Spermatogenesis, produce spermatozoa

3

What is the serous sac covering the anterolateral surface of each testis?

Tunica vaginalis, has a parietal and visceral layer

4

Vessels and ducts pass through the ____ as they enter and leave the testis.

Mediastinum testis, no tunica vaginalis here

5

What type of epithelium is found in the seminiferous tubules?

Stratified germinal epithelium

6

What type of epithelium is found in the tubuli recti?

Sertoli cells and simple cuboidal epithelium

7

What type of epithelium is found in the rete testes?

Simple epithelium that varies from squamous to low columnar

8

What type of epithelium is found in the ductuli efferentis?

Scalloped, simple epithelium of alternating non-ciliated cuboidal cells and ciliated tall columnar cells
**only true cilia in the male reproductive system**

9

What type of epithelium is found in the ductus epidydymus

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

10

What type of epithelium is found in the ductus deferens

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia,
surrounded by thick muscular layer

11

In spermatogenesis, what cells divide during the first meiotic division?

Primary spermatocytes

12

In spermatogenesis, what cells divide during the second meiotic division?

Secondary spermatocytes

13

What morpholgical changes occur to the spermatid during spermiogenesis?

Conversion of spermatid to spermatozoa
No cell division
Spermatids are still attached to Sertoli cell membrane
Formation of acrosome occurs
Flagellum formation
Nuclear changes - nucleus condenses
Change in orientation so head is pointint towards basal lamina and tail is in lumen
Spermiation - late change in spermiogenesis

14

The release of spermatozoa from Sertoli cells is called:

Spermiation

15

Mitochondria are concentrated in what portion of spermatozoa?

Midpiece

16

Name 4 functions of Sertoli cells.

*Prominent nuceolus, extend from lumen to BM**
1. The blood-testis barrier occurs vis occluding junctions of Sertoli cells
2. Support, protect, give nutrients to developing sperm
3.Phagocytosis of residual bodies shed from spermatids and degenerate failing sperm
4. Secretion of testicular fluid for sperm transport, secretion of androgen binding protein

17

What is the function of Leydig cells?

Secrete steroid hormones, stimulated by LH
**may have lipofuscin in the cytoplasm**

18

What is the role of androgen binding protein?

It binds testosterone to trap it in the seminiferous tubules to promote sperm development.

19

What is cryptorchidism and why does it result in sterility if not corrected?

Failure of 1 or both testes to descend

20

Most of the testicular fluid is produced by:

Seminal vesicles

21

List 4 functions of the epidydimus.

1. Maturation of sperm happens here
2. Reabsorption of testicular fluid
3. phagocytosis of remaining residual bodies and degenerating sperm
4. principal reservoir for mature sperm (tail)
5. contraction of smooth muscle layers in tail expel sperm during ejaculation

22

How can you differentiate the ductus deferens from the ductus epidydimis in cross section?

1.ductus deferens has a smaller lumen to muscle ratio
2. ductus deferens has layers of smooth muscle, and it only 1 cross section
3. ductus epididymis has many lumens, it's cleaner looking that the rete testes
4. ductus epididymis has stereocilia
5. ductus epididymis should have no smooth muscle

23

In which portion of the male reproductive system is the transport of sperm passive?

Passive from seminiferous tubules to efferent ductules

24

In which portion of the male reproductive system is the transport of sperm active?

Active from efferent ductules to urethra
Efferent ductules, sperm cannot yet swim, which is why there are cilia here.
Epidydimis, contractions by muscles move sperm along.

25

Secretions from what accessory gland are responsible for liquefying sperm?

Prostate, contains enzymatic fluid that liquefies semen

26

Fructose is a major component of the secretions from which accessory gland?

Seminal vesicles

27

Secretions from what accessory gland play a role in lubricating the penile urethra?

Foremost: bulbourethral glands - discharges first during ejaculation fo lubricate urethra
Glands of Littre, small glands located along the length of the penile urethra

28

In what order are the secretions from the accessory glands released during ejaculation?

Ejaculatory Sequence
bulbourethral glands and glands of Littre
0.1-0.2 ml
prostatic fluid and sperm
0.5 ml
seminal vesicle fluid
1.5-2 ml

29

What accessory gland contributes the greatest volume to semen?

Seminal vesicles

30

Which zone of the prostate surrounds the urethra?

Transition zone

31

Which zone of the prostate surrounds the ejaculatory ducts?

Central zone

32

Which zone of the prostate is the site of origin for most prostatic cancers?

Peripheral zone

33

Which zone of the prostate is the site of origin of BPH?

Transition zone, leading to obstruction of the penile urethra

34

What are the prostatic concretions?

Calcifications forming concentric condensations in lumen of glands
prostatic concretions frequently observed in lumen
increase with age

35

What is prostate-specific antigen (PSA)? Why does it increase with prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer cells overproduce PSA and release it into circulation
Dramatically increased early detection of prostate cancer
Increased levels alone are not diagnostic of cancer (needle biopsy required)

36

Are increased PSA levels diagnostic of prostate cancer?

Increased levels alone are not diagnostic of cancer (needle biopsy required)