Microscopic Anatomy of the Airways Flashcards Preview

Week 6: Pneumonia and Cough > Microscopic Anatomy of the Airways > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microscopic Anatomy of the Airways Deck (17):
1

4 key functions of the respiratory system

Inspiration and exhalation of air
Gas exchange
Olfaction
Phonation

2

What type of epithelium is in the airways

Respiratory epithelium
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

3

3 types of cells in resp epithelium

Ciliated columnar cells
Goblet cells
Basal cells

4

2 layers of airway lining fluid

Mucus layer
Periciliary layer

5

Mucus is produced by...

Goblet cells
Seromucus glands

6

4 layers of trachea

Mucosa
Submucosa
Cartilage
Adventitia (loose CT)

7

2 changes that happen when the bronchi enter the lungs

Rings of cartilage are replaced by irregular cartilage plates
There is a circular layer of smooth muscle

8

5 layers of the bronchi

Mucosa
Muscularis
Submucosa
Cartilage
Adventitia

9

3 changes that occur as the intrapulmonary bronchi become smaller

The amount of cartilage decreases
Respiratory epithelium becomes reduced in height
Layer of smooth muscle

10

2 changes that make bronchi into bronchioles

No cartilage
No submucosal glands

11

Club cells

Non-ciliated, dome shaped
In smaller bronchioles
Lung protective functions (surfactant, detox, inflammation control, make enzymes to breakdown mucus, and lyzosyme)

12

Differences between main bronchi and intrapulmonary bronchi

Main: irregular plates of cartilage, smooth muscle, numerous seromucous glands in submucosa
Intrapulmonary: cartilage reduced as airway gets smaller, smooth muscle, seromucous glands only in larger airways, resp epithelium reduced in height as airways get smaller

13

Epithelium in bronchioles

Simple columnar and simple cuboidal
Club cells replace goblet cells

14

Respiratory bronchioles

Do both air conduction and gas exchange
Alveoli extend from lumen

15

Type 1 pneumocytes

Thin squamous cells
Large surface area to facilitate gas exchange
Linked by tight junctions
Cover 95% of alveolar surface

16

Type 2 pneumocytes

Cuboidal cells that are more numerous but cover only 5% of the alveolar surface
Secrete surfactant to prevent alveolar collapse

17

Dust cells

Alveolar macrophages
Found in septum and air space of alveoli
Combat infection