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Flashcards in Mid-Term Deck (34)
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Polis

City/State, Community

1

Direct democracy

Most citizens make policy, as in a town meeting

2

Parliamentary System

Vests power in an elected legislature that chooses the chief executive

3

Presidential Democracy

Vests power in a separately elected president & legislature

4

Checks & Balances

Used to keep the government from getting too powerful in one branch

5

Separation of Powers

Power is shared by legislative, executive, and judicial branches

6

Natural Law

Unchanging moral principles

7

Article 1

All legislative powers shall be vested in a congress consisting of Senate & House of Representatives

8

Article 2

Executive power shall be vested in a president of US, term of four years

9

Article 3

Judicial power shall be vested in Supreme Court

10

Article 5

The process whereby the constitution may be altered

11

4th Amendment

No one can search you unless they have a warrant

12

5th Amendment

Right to be indicted by a grand jury, before being tried for a serious crime

13

10th Amendment

Powers not delegated to the U.S. by the constitution are reserved to the states

14

Implied Powers

Powers authorized by a document that seems to be implied rather than expressively stated

15

Elastic Clause

Granting congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers

16

Categorical grants

Federal grants for specific purposes (airports, parks, college dorms)

17

Block Grants

Several grants focused on a single block, devoted to a general purpose

18

Police powers

Government authority to promote public order, safety, and morals

19

Selective Incorporation

When court applies most parts of the bill of rights to the states

20

Unitary System

State government derive authority from central government (UK & France)

21

Federal System

Power divided between central & state government (Canada & US)

22

Confederal System

Power held by independent states (US under Articles of Confederation)

23

Lemon vs Kurtzman (1971)

Three tests are described for deciding wether the government is improperly involved with religion

24

Engel vs Vitale (1962)

There may not be a prayer in public schools

25

Zelman vs Simmons-Harris (2002)

Voucher plan to pay school bills is upheld

26

Devolution

Transfer or delegation of power to a lower level

27

Pluralism

System in which two or more states, groups, principles that coexist

28

Judicial Review

Power of courts to null and void

29

Strict Construction

View that judges should decide cases on the basis of the language of the Constitution