Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (46):
How does a proteins tertiary structure depend on its primary structure?
The individual amino acids within a sequence can interact with their neighbors to create local secondary structures. The sun of all secondary structures will be the tertiary structure of the polypeptide
What is the difference between the secondary and the tertiary structure of a protein
Secondary structure refers to the 3-D shape of some specific region with a polypeptide; tertiary structure is the sum of all secondary structures
What are the four components of all amino acids?
Amino group, carboxyl group, R group, alpha carbon
What is an example of protein secondary structure?
What is a description of the quaternary structure of a protein?
The 3-D structure of multiple polypeptides into a functional protein
What is the role of proteins in the body?
Defending against pathogens, transporting nutrients across membranes, structural support
A single sugar
Two sugars linked by a glycosidic bond
More than 20 sugars linked by glycosidic bonds
Which of the carbohydrates is a primary metabolic fuel for humans
Which is the correct pairing of a polysaccharide and the monosaccharide from which it is made
Which polysaccharides provide energy storage for plants and animals, respectively?
Starch and glycogen
Why does a phospholipid villager naturally form when phospholipids are placed in water?
Because it is intrinsic to the nature of phospholipids that they will form villagers. It had to do with have two fatty acid tails on each phospholipid
Explain how lipids enable an animal to hibernate
The hibernating animal can break triglycerides to release fatty acids. The fatty acids can be used in aerobic metabolism. The aerobic metabolism of fatty acids also produced a lot of water.
How many fatty acids are found in a fat/triglyceride?
Three fatty acids joined by ester bonds to a glycerol
How many fatty acids are found ina phospholipid?
Two fatty acids joined to glycerol by ester bonds
How many fatty acids are found in cholesterol
There are no fatty acids in cholesterol
In humans, steroids are...
Used in the production of sex hormones
The head of a phospholipid is hydrophilic because it has...
A phosphate group+a hydrophilic R group
What molecules is a phosphodiester linkage found in?
How does DNA communicate the hereditary information it contains to synthesize proteins?
DNA serves as a template to make a complementary RNA. Some DNA code regions contain the information to make a polypeptide
What is the main difference between the double helix formed in a DNA molecule as compared with the 3D structure of a tRNA molecule?
A tRNA is actually a signal chain of nucleotides that has folded on itself
Which is larger, a eukaryotic cell or a prokaryotic cell?
Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryote cells
Single or multi-celled: are eukaryotic organisms single-celled or multi-celled? Are prokaryotic organisms single-celled or multi-celled?
Eukaryotes can be multicellular; prokaryotes are unicellular
What type of cells have membrane bound organelles?
Where is DNA located in eukaryotic cells? Prokaryotic cells?
Eukaryotes-DNA in the nucleus, the mitochondrion, and the chloroplast. Prokaryotes-DNA is in the cytoplasm
In what type of cells are ribosomes?
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes
What is the role of mRNA in protein synthesis?
The linear sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
In what way do chloroplasts and mitochondria perform opposite functions?
A chloroplast uses energy derived from light to combine H2O and CO2 to make glucose. In photosynthesis ATP is convert d to ADP+P to release energy.
A mitochondrion metabolized glucose and will yield H2O and CO2 as products of metabolism. During this process, ADP+P are converted to ATP for the purpose of storing energy
The monomers that make up a protein are called...
What is accomplished during transcription?
DNA transfers information to RNA
Minimal definition for a cell
A unit of cytoplasm bounded by a plasma membrane that is capable of replication with modification
What are the components of cytoplasm?
H2O, ions, basic organic molecules, small organic compounds, macromolecules, and molecular complexes
Basic organic molecules-
Amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, nucleotides
Small organic complexes-
Co-enzymes=molecule that facilitates biological reaction
Vitamins=organic molecules that we cannot make
Nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
Macro molecular complexes
Ribosomes=protein/nucleic acid complex
A discrete chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds(polypeptides)
Protein building blocks
Type of bond in protein
Basic functions of proteins
Make enzymes, channel complexes, receptors, gene regulatory proteins and can serve as an energy source
General chemical property of protein
What type of enzyme would you use to break protein
Peptidase or protease
A hydrophilic organic polymer that consists of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Building block of carbohydrate