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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (46):
1

How does a proteins tertiary structure depend on its primary structure?

The individual amino acids within a sequence can interact with their neighbors to create local secondary structures. The sun of all secondary structures will be the tertiary structure of the polypeptide

2

What is the difference between the secondary and the tertiary structure of a protein

Secondary structure refers to the 3-D shape of some specific region with a polypeptide; tertiary structure is the sum of all secondary structures

3

What are the four components of all amino acids?

Amino group, carboxyl group, R group, alpha carbon

4

What is an example of protein secondary structure?

Alpha helixes

5

What is a description of the quaternary structure of a protein?

The 3-D structure of multiple polypeptides into a functional protein

6

What is the role of proteins in the body?

Defending against pathogens, transporting nutrients across membranes, structural support

7

Monosaccharide-

A single sugar

8

Disaccharide-

Two sugars linked by a glycosidic bond

9

Polysaccharide

More than 20 sugars linked by glycosidic bonds

10

Which of the carbohydrates is a primary metabolic fuel for humans

Glucose

11

Which is the correct pairing of a polysaccharide and the monosaccharide from which it is made

Starch, glucose

12

Which polysaccharides provide energy storage for plants and animals, respectively?

Starch and glycogen

13

Why does a phospholipid villager naturally form when phospholipids are placed in water?

Because it is intrinsic to the nature of phospholipids that they will form villagers. It had to do with have two fatty acid tails on each phospholipid

14

Explain how lipids enable an animal to hibernate

The hibernating animal can break triglycerides to release fatty acids. The fatty acids can be used in aerobic metabolism. The aerobic metabolism of fatty acids also produced a lot of water.

15

How many fatty acids are found in a fat/triglyceride?

Three fatty acids joined by ester bonds to a glycerol

16

How many fatty acids are found ina phospholipid?

Two fatty acids joined to glycerol by ester bonds

17

How many fatty acids are found in cholesterol

There are no fatty acids in cholesterol

18

In humans, steroids are...

Used in the production of sex hormones

19

The head of a phospholipid is hydrophilic because it has...

A phosphate group+a hydrophilic R group

20

What molecules is a phosphodiester linkage found in?

Nucleic acids

21

How does DNA communicate the hereditary information it contains to synthesize proteins?

DNA serves as a template to make a complementary RNA. Some DNA code regions contain the information to make a polypeptide

22

What is the main difference between the double helix formed in a DNA molecule as compared with the 3D structure of a tRNA molecule?

A tRNA is actually a signal chain of nucleotides that has folded on itself

23

Which is larger, a eukaryotic cell or a prokaryotic cell?

Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryote cells

24

Single or multi-celled: are eukaryotic organisms single-celled or multi-celled? Are prokaryotic organisms single-celled or multi-celled?

Eukaryotes can be multicellular; prokaryotes are unicellular

25

What type of cells have membrane bound organelles?

Eukaryotes

26

Where is DNA located in eukaryotic cells? Prokaryotic cells?

Eukaryotes-DNA in the nucleus, the mitochondrion, and the chloroplast. Prokaryotes-DNA is in the cytoplasm

27

In what type of cells are ribosomes?

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes

28

What is the role of mRNA in protein synthesis?

The linear sequence of nucleotides in mRNA

29

In what way do chloroplasts and mitochondria perform opposite functions?

A chloroplast uses energy derived from light to combine H2O and CO2 to make glucose. In photosynthesis ATP is convert d to ADP+P to release energy.
A mitochondrion metabolized glucose and will yield H2O and CO2 as products of metabolism. During this process, ADP+P are converted to ATP for the purpose of storing energy

30

The monomers that make up a protein are called...

Amino acids

31

What is accomplished during transcription?

DNA transfers information to RNA

32

Minimal definition for a cell

A unit of cytoplasm bounded by a plasma membrane that is capable of replication with modification

33

What are the components of cytoplasm?

H2O, ions, basic organic molecules, small organic compounds, macromolecules, and molecular complexes

34

Basic organic molecules-

Amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, nucleotides

35

Small organic complexes-

ATP=energy shuttle
Co-enzymes=molecule that facilitates biological reaction
Vitamins=organic molecules that we cannot make

36

Macromolecules

Carbon polymers
Nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids

37

Macro molecular complexes

Ribosomes=protein/nucleic acid complex

38

Protein definition

A discrete chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds(polypeptides)

39

Protein building blocks

Amino acids

40

Type of bond in protein

Peptide bond

41

Basic functions of proteins

Make enzymes, channel complexes, receptors, gene regulatory proteins and can serve as an energy source

42

General chemical property of protein

Hydrophilic

43

What type of enzyme would you use to break protein

Peptidase or protease

44

Carbohydrate definition

A hydrophilic organic polymer that consists of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

45

Building block of carbohydrate

Simple sugars

46

Type of bond for carbohydrate

Simple sugars