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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (135):
1

Political system subject to

Influences of the environment in which they exist

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House of representatives have the power to

Impeach

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Impeach

Charged with a crime, senate serves as jury

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Power versus authority power definition

Personal qualities to exude powder, exercise by an individual

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Power versus authority authority definition

Appointed to someone

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Political system subject to change to the dynamic processes of

Values, beliefs, culture, history, experiences-individual and collective

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Politics

Activities of governments concerning the political relations between countries, making decisions that apply to members of a group

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Policy

Outcome of a political system

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Political system

Exists in an environment with history, values, believes, culture

10

Congress of confederation

Model the south south used to break from the union

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Article of Confederation

Weak government, no executive branch, weak central government, Failed because of no tax, colonies had different policies, states with authority didn’t work, no bill of rights, weak judiciary, states were in charge of trades, required unanimous votes

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Hierarchy of law

Constitution, statue (law), regulation

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Constitution

Basic, fundamental source of authority for government to act, over arching principles of a political system

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Statute (law)

Policies and acted by a legislative body to implement the constitution, authority to act is derived from the constitution, more detailed than a Constitution provides

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Regulation

Policies adopted by an executive body under authority granted by a legislative body, more detailed than a law provides, authority to act is derived from laws, specifically granted

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Structure and function, structure definition

How it is organized

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Structure and function function definition

What it is supposed to do

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Purpose of constitution

Allocate and legitimize power, establishes conditions and restrictions on the use of the same,Provides methods by which officers are selected, processes by which might be amended, special features of society that are protected or advance

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Anti-federalist

Need a weak central government and strong state government

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Federalist

Strong central government and weak state government

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The Federalist papers

85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John jay to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution

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Constitutional convention met in Philadelphia in 1787

Meeting to study possible amendments to the article of Confederation, no public participation, 42 white men

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James Madison’s role and constitutional convention

Was convincing the articles needed to be scraped, not simply amended in place, kept written notes

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President of the constitutional convention

George Washington where he said virtually nothing, no records,

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The great compromise

Agreement that large and small states reach during the Constitutional convention that defined the legislative structure and representation for each state, i.e. Senate and Congress

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The constitution must’ve been ratified by

Nine states

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The constitution was not a democracy because

Founders had serious reservations about the passions of the masses and provided buffers between citizens and the government

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What three branches were provided in the constitution

Legislative, executive, judicial

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What did the constitution not provide

The bill of rights

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Why was the ratification process lengthy and controversial

Not everyone agreed the articles of confederation need to be replaced, many were concerned about no bill of rights, concerned that central government was too much of the king, some states wanted special amendments

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During the ratification process what appeared in newspapers

Articles promoting the adoption of the proposed Constitution, i.e. the Federalist papers were Alexander Hamilton wrote mostAnd was to explain the proposed Constitution and address concerns

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When was the United States Constitution ratified

1789

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Number one concern for most states with the constitution

They wanted to address immediately was to add the Bill of Rights document

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Article 1

Vaguely discusses the two chambers of the legislative branch House of Representatives and Senate

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House of representatives

Seats allocated on the basis of population, seats apportioned among the states based on census taken every 10 years, qualifications had to be 25 years of age citizen for seven years, two-year term, directly elected by the people, presiding officer speaker of the house, number of members set by law not the constitution

36

Senate

Two seats allocated to each state, 1/3 of the body elected every two years, qualifications 30 years of age and Citizenfour nine years, six-year term, selected by the legislatures of the state, presiding officer vice president although he is only eligible to vote in the case of a tie, number of members is a function of the number of states in the United States

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The houses authority

Power of impeachment, revenue bills must originate here, safeguard the only directly elected body in the new central government

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Senate authority

Power to try cases of impeachment, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court per side over trial, 2/3 vote required to convict and remove from office, ratify treaties 2/3 vote, confirm appointments of the executive

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Where are the powers of Congress found

In article 1 section 8 and nine

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Different kinds of power

Enumerated,implied, concurrent, reserved, inherent, powers denied

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Enumerated power

Specific grant of authority, in many cases with conditions, In the Constitution, usually legislative and presidents able to veto

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Implied powers

Necessary and proper, Things they can do for the common good

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Concurrent powers

Powers that may be exercised by the central government and states i.e. the power to tax

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Reserved powers

Added by the 10th amendment, Powers reserved to states that protects them from a strong central government

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Inherent power

Powers that exist simply because a governmental entity exist, applies mostly to internal operating procedures

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Powers denied

Government is prohibited from exercising certain powers, Denied by the constitution

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Countervailing forces intended to disburse and check power

Separation of powers, checks and balances

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Checks and balances

Counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated

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Section 7 of the constitution

Revenue bills must originate in the House of Representatives, summarizes the 30 of the president to one bills passed in congress

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Authority of the president when bills passed Congress

Veto process and requirement to override, sign, allow bill to become law after Congress adjourns

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Section 8 of the Constitution

Listing of major enumerated powers

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Section 9 and 10 of the constitution

Powers denied

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First act of the Congress under the constitution was to

Fulfill a pledge to draft an amendment to the constitution that were discussed during the ratification process in each state

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Leader in drafting the amendment

James Madison

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James Madison proposed

19 amendments, senate reduce the number to 12, 12 amendments were sent to states for ratification, amendments three through 12 are ratified and became known as the Bill of Rights

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Organization an operation of Congress is centered on two concepts

System of committees that do the majority of the work, system of political parties and majority rule

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Majority in each chamber party controls the

Agenda and the process

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Agenda

What and when

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Process

How

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Each political party forms a caucus and elects leadership to lead

Majority leader majority whip

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Together the speaker the majority leader in the majority whip control what happens and when

They appoint the chairs of committees, a. The members of each committee, majority party controls the agenda and process

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At the beginning of each congress January of odd-numbered years each chamber adopt a resolution that contains the rules under which

The chamber will operate for a two year period

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Each committee has what is called jurisdiction of certain areas of policy

Described in the rules but also an informal group met as to what subject matters

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Seniority in a committee

Drives the system, most often the deciding factor in a planning championships, most often the deciding factor in determining appointments too committees

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Process of house to submit bills

Introduced common referral, committee hearing, Mark up amendment, committee vote, rules committee, house debate, vote, version of Bill

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Process of senate for a bill

Introduced, referral, committee hearing, mark up amendments, committee vote, majority leader, Senate debate, vote, version of bill

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Committee only in the house

Rules

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If bills are not the same the bill goes to a

Conference committee where members seek to resolve differences in the bill then goes back to debate

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Filibuster

Only in senate, talking a bill to death, to stop at 60 member votes

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Bill passes both chambers in identicle form then

President can sign, Veto, delay law without signature

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United States system of government is a

Constitutional federal republic, its a democratic system of Government not a true democracy

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Electoral college is provided in

Article 2 of the constitution

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Electoral college is an example of

Indirect democracy so the passion of masses are removed from election of the president

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How many electoral votes are required to win and why

270, more than half like congress

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Article 2

Executive branch, 1025 words

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What are the powers of the president

Specific grandson constitution, commander-in-chief, grant pardons and reprieves, make treaties for senate approval, state of union,appointments to be approved by senate

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Appointments made by President

Department heads, and ambassadors, other agencies such as regulatory boards and commissions

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Other powers inferred by the existence of the office, inherent powers

Foreign-policy, and ministration of government on a day-to-day basis, may propose war but the actual declaration of war is assigned to Congress, prepare an executive budget, party leader

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A budget

Statement of values and priorities

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Preparing a budget

Responsibility of the executive branch at all levels of government and recommend certain levels of funding

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Authorizing the expenditure of money that is taking them from the treasury to pay for programs and activities is a

Legislative function

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Two significant transitions in the executive branch following the adoption of the Constitution

Under the articles of confederation there was no executive branch, federal bureaucracy receipt grew rapidly as the United States entered World War II and the rate of growth

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Federal bureaucracies excelorated during an in the period after war

Number of programs grew as more and more people migrated to the cities to work in factories to support the war effort, urbanization brought about demand for services i.e. housing education and social services

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As government grew the federal budget became

Increasingly larger and more complex

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In response to the federal budget growing the congress created

Office of management and budget

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Office of management and budget compiles

the executive budget on behalf of the president, President appoints the director of office

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Each year the OMB prepares the executive budget and submitted to Congress

Proposes funding levels for agencies and programs created by Congress

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Office of Inspector General

Make sure there’s no corruption and no waste, independent audit of activities and given department

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Most significant things Congress can do

Congressional oversight, hearings, legislative veto of policies, reports, office of Inspector General

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Qualifications for executive branch in the constitution

No person except a natural born citizen or Adoption of the United States, 35 years old, been 14 years a resident

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Article 2 terms of office

Four years the term doesn’t talk about how many terms

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Executive branch agencies

War state and treasury, navy, interior, justice, agriculture, labor, commerce, defense, housing and urban development, transportation, energy, health and human services, education, Veterans Affairs, Homeland security

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Line of succession for president

Vice President, speaker of the house, President pro tempore, Secretary of State, secretary of treasury, secretary of defense, attorney general, so on

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Succession in the original constitution

No, 1947 Congress and acted a lot to provide for an orderly transition

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Article 3 of the constitution

Judicial power, 377 words, Supreme Court created by the constitution, Constitution and powers, Congress to create and fund an interior court system

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Term for Supreme Court Justice

Lifetime

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Who established the number of members for the Supreme Court

Congress and nine

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Power of judicial review by the Supreme Court

Rule actions of executive and legislative branches as unconstitutional

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Where is the power of judicial review found in the constitution

It is not in the constitution but Marbury versus Madison declared judicial review

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Marbury versus Madison

The case that established the power of judicial review by the Supreme Court

101

Inferior courts


Created by Congress, structures funding approved by Congress, United States is divided into districts

102

Article four


Amending the US Constitution

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How many the constitution be amended

2/3 vote of each chamber house and senate, 2/3 of state call constitution convention

104

For 2/3 of Congress to propose amendments and must be sent directly to the

States for ratification, president has no role whatsoever in the formal process, 3/4 of the state legislator must approve the proposed amendment i.e. 38 states required

105

2/3 of the states may call convention for the purpose of amending the constitution

Approve my legislator, convention must be called, Constitution doesn’t say how convention would function, if majority delegates approve it must be sent to the states for ratification or 3/4 have to agree

106

Which process of amending the constitution has been only used

The first one

107

Bill of rights

First 10 amendments of the Constitution

108

In the constitution one could it be amended

After 1808 but it took 57 years to abolish slavery

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13th amendment

Abolish slavery but Jim Crow laws were enacted

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14th amendment

Persons born in the United States were deemed citizens

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15th amendment

Right to vote, men only, woman and Native Americans were not granted the right to vote so

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16th amendment

Congress extended the power to impose an income tax

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17th amendment

US senators were to be elected by the voters

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18th amendment

Prohibition, the production transportation and sales of alcohol was prohibited

115

19th amendment

Women were extended the right to vote, at some stares already granted the right to vote for women,

116

20th amendment

Declare the powers of the vice president in the event of the president was incapacitated

117

21st amendment

Repealed Prohibition

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22nd amendment

Establish that the president may serve no more than two 4 year terms

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23rd amendment

District of Columbia was extended the right to cast electoral votes

120

24th amendment

Poll taxes were banned, blacks paid to vote

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25th amendment

Clarify the vice president role

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26th amendment

18-year-olds were extended the right to vote

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27th amendment

Congress was denied the power to the crease it’s compensation this was an original 12 amendment

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Separation of powers

Not in the constitution, Put Okul doctrine of constitutional law under which of the three branches of government are kept separate to prevent abuse of power

125

Checks and balances

Not in the constitutionWhere branch can check the other two branches

126

Describe at least one check one branch has over each of the other two branches of government never

Legislative branch approves appointments at the president makes, Legislative branch must approve the present choice of judges to the judicial branch

127

The most important checks and balances

Executive branch can veto laws that Congress wants to pass, legislative branch may check the executive branch by passing lines over the veto by 2/3 vote, judicial branch may check both legislative and executive by declaring laws unconstitutional

128

Authority

Formal assignment of power

129

Civil liberties

Freedom to act, until the government gets involved, best protected when government does not act

130

Liberty

Freedom to act, believe, speak, and express

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Reserved powers

Powers reserved to states and citizens, 10th amendment

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Civil rights

Require action by legislative and judicial branches, enact statues and enact rulings, best protected when government in involved

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Gerrymandering

Drawing legislative line to dilute it for a political party

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Packing

Gerrymandering, pack them in one district

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Cracking

Gerrymandering, shave off numbers of people to other districts in a small group