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1

language is mixed behavior because

it is a combination of intrinsic abilities and features which are innate/instinctual/biological along with environmental influence (learned behaviors)

2

mixed behavior

instinct + learning/culture

3

What is Universal Grammar? How is it universal?

a set of highly restrictive principles that guide the construction of grammar - qualitatively the same in every individual

4

Why do linguists tend to restrict the term “language” to human lan-guage? Why not call all animal communication systems “language”?How do you think language differs from other animal communicationsystems?

virtually every sentence that a person utters or understands is a brand-new combination of words, appearing for the first time in the history of the universe. Therefore, not a repertoire of responses

FLB vs FLN (human)

5

language defined as

complex, specialized skill which develops in the child spontaneously without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently

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What do we mean by a critical (or sensitive) period for language? How does that relate to the case of Genie?

language acquisition capacities are only present during a certain developmental time window (the Critical Period)
- genie "missed" this key acquisition period

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all languages are equal in

acquisition, complex structure, and expressiveness

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acquisition

All human languages are acquired by children in the same general way

9

Complex structure

All human languages have complex rules for phonology, morphology, and syntax

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Expressiveness

All human languages are equally capable of expressing complex thoughts

11

what does it mean by: Children ‘know what to look for’ in what they hear

They impose (hierarchical) structure and derive underlying rules on their linguistic input that goes beyond what is present in the input •They will do things that they have no evidence for *The range of their errors is quite limited

12

All human languages have complex rules for

phonology, morphology, and syntax.

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The Wug test (Berko 1958)

Evidence that there must be a morphological rule: Add /-z/ to form plural nouns

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Rules for English plural11•But compare plurals for: •Dog /-z/•Cat /-s/•Church /-əz/
- This implies that children need to generalize additional ______ rules

phonological

15

u shaped learning

children overregularize. they begin to "invent" rules which they generalize, often not identifying irregular forms

16

overgeneraliation =

evidence for rules (diff for each language - SOV SVO VOS etc)

17

difference between phonology and phonetics

phonology is the study of sound systems of language (abstract aspect) (blick vs bnick); phonetics is the study of the physical aspect of sounds - how are sounds produced in the vocal tract

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overgeneralization =

evidence for rules (diff for each language - SOV SVO VOS etc)

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sub-systems of grammar

Pragmatics - semantics - syntax - morphology - phonology - phonetics

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morphology is

study of word structure (wug vs wugs (morphological rule)

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syntax

study of sentence structure (word order e.g. SOV, SVO, VSO etc)

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phonetics

the study of the physical aspect of sounds (articulatory phonetics)

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phonetics

the study of the physical aspect of sounds (articulatory phonetics, speech production)

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consonants vs vowels

constriction vs little/no obstruction

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consonants catagorized according to

place, manner, state of glottis (voicing)

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voiceless produced by

open vocal folds - free airflow through glottis

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voiced produced by

vocal folds of glottis pulled together and vibrating as air flows through

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oral vs nasal

position of velum

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velum raised

oral

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velum lowered

nasal

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bilabial sounds

[b] bat
[p] pat
[m] mat

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labiodental sounds

[f] faint
[v] velar

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dental sounds

theta, theta x

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alveolar

t, d, n, r, s, z, r, l

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manner of obstruction

how the airstream is obstructed

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[p]

oral stop

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[s]

oral fricative

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[w]

approximant

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[m]

nasal stop

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l

lateral approximant

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[ɾ] (latter)

tap / flap

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vowels

tongue height
tongue position
lip roundedness
tongue tenseness

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[k]

voiceless oral velar stop / plosive

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high, front, round, tense

close, central, unrounded, lax

45

diphthongs

distinct vowel sound comprised of multiple monophthongs - ei made - ou mode

46

phoneme =

basic (abstract) form of sound as sensed mentally, rather than spoken or heard

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to find phonemes look for

minimal pairs: : sɪp vs zɪp, deɪ vs beɪ

48

to find phonemes look for

minimal pairs: : sɪp vs zɪp, deɪ vs beɪ

49

allophones are

variants of the same sound; allophones are variants of the same sound

50

allophones of a phoneme are found in

complementary distribution

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complementary distribution =

The situation in which segments never occur in the same phonetic environment: e.g., [t] and [tʰ] in English

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why are the allophones of a phoneme said to be in complementary distribution

they never occur in identical phonetic environments

53

underlying form

more common, also called elsewhere or defaut form