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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (53)
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1
Q

language is mixed behavior because

A

it is a combination of intrinsic abilities and features which are innate/instinctual/biological along with environmental influence (learned behaviors)

2
Q

mixed behavior

A

instinct + learning/culture

3
Q

What is Universal Grammar? How is it universal?

A

a set of highly restrictive principles that guide the construction of grammar - qualitatively the same in every individual

4
Q

Why do linguists tend to restrict the term “language” to human lan-guage? Why not call all animal communication systems “language”?How do you think language differs from other animal communicationsystems?

A

virtually every sentence that a person utters or understands is a brand-new combination of words, appearing for the first time in the history of the universe. Therefore, not a repertoire of responses

FLB vs FLN (human)

5
Q

language defined as

A

complex, specialized skill which develops in the child spontaneously without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently

6
Q

What do we mean by a critical (or sensitive) period for language? How does that relate to the case of Genie?

A

language acquisition capacities are only present during a certain developmental time window (the Critical Period)
- genie “missed” this key acquisition period

7
Q

all languages are equal in

A

acquisition, complex structure, and expressiveness

8
Q

acquisition

A

All human languages are acquired by children in the same general way

9
Q

Complex structure

A

All human languages have complex rules for phonology, morphology, and syntax

10
Q

Expressiveness

A

All human languages are equally capable of expressing complex thoughts

11
Q

what does it mean by: Children ‘know what to look for’ in what they hear

A

They impose (hierarchical) structure and derive underlying rules on their linguistic input that goes beyond what is present in the input •They will do things that they have no evidence for *The range of their errors is quite limited

12
Q

All human languages have complex rules for

A

phonology, morphology, and syntax.

13
Q

The Wug test (Berko 1958)

A

Evidence that there must be a morphological rule: Add /-z/ to form plural nouns

14
Q

Rules for English plural11•But compare plurals for: •Dog /-z/•Cat /-s/•Church /-əz/
- This implies that children need to generalize additional ______ rules

A

phonological

15
Q

u shaped learning

A

children overregularize. they begin to “invent” rules which they generalize, often not identifying irregular forms

16
Q

overgeneraliation =

A

evidence for rules (diff for each language - SOV SVO VOS etc)

17
Q

difference between phonology and phonetics

A

phonology is the study of sound systems of language (abstract aspect) (blick vs bnick); phonetics is the study of the physical aspect of sounds - how are sounds produced in the vocal tract

18
Q

overgeneralization =

A

evidence for rules (diff for each language - SOV SVO VOS etc)

19
Q

sub-systems of grammar

A

Pragmatics - semantics - syntax - morphology - phonology - phonetics

20
Q

morphology is

A

study of word structure (wug vs wugs (morphological rule)

21
Q

syntax

A

study of sentence structure (word order e.g. SOV, SVO, VSO etc)

22
Q

phonetics

A

the study of the physical aspect of sounds (articulatory phonetics)

23
Q

phonetics

A

the study of the physical aspect of sounds (articulatory phonetics, speech production)

24
Q

consonants vs vowels

A

constriction vs little/no obstruction

25
Q

consonants catagorized according to

A

place, manner, state of glottis (voicing)

26
Q

voiceless produced by

A

open vocal folds - free airflow through glottis

27
Q

voiced produced by

A

vocal folds of glottis pulled together and vibrating as air flows through

28
Q

oral vs nasal

A

position of velum

29
Q

velum raised

A

oral

30
Q

velum lowered

A

nasal

31
Q

bilabial sounds

A

[b] bat
[p] pat
[m] mat

32
Q

labiodental sounds

A

[f] faint

[v] velar

33
Q

dental sounds

A

theta, theta x

34
Q

alveolar

A

t, d, n, r, s, z, r, l

35
Q

manner of obstruction

A

how the airstream is obstructed

36
Q

[p]

A

oral stop

37
Q

[s]

A

oral fricative

38
Q

[w]

A

approximant

39
Q

[m]

A

nasal stop

40
Q

l

A

lateral approximant

41
Q

[ɾ] (latter)

A

tap / flap

42
Q

vowels

A

tongue height
tongue position
lip roundedness
tongue tenseness

43
Q

[k]

A

voiceless oral velar stop / plosive

44
Q

high, front, round, tense

A

close, central, unrounded, lax

45
Q

diphthongs

A

distinct vowel sound comprised of multiple monophthongs - ei made - ou mode

46
Q

phoneme =

A

basic (abstract) form of sound as sensed mentally, rather than spoken or heard

47
Q

to find phonemes look for

A

minimal pairs: : sɪp vs zɪp, deɪ vs beɪ

48
Q

to find phonemes look for

A

minimal pairs: : sɪp vs zɪp, deɪ vs beɪ

49
Q

allophones are

A

variants of the same sound; allophones are variants of the same sound

50
Q

allophones of a phoneme are found in

A

complementary distribution

51
Q

complementary distribution =

A

The situation in which segments never occur in the same phonetic environment: e.g., [t] and [tʰ] in English

52
Q

why are the allophones of a phoneme said to be in complementary distribution

A

they never occur in identical phonetic environments

53
Q

underlying form

A

more common, also called elsewhere or defaut form