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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (32):
1

Ethogram

formal description or inventory of an animal behaviours
Measures frequency, duration, rate and intensity (total time & relative frequency of a behaviour)
Often compare healthy and captivity induced behaviour

2

3 R's

Reduction – limiting number of animals used, open access to research to avoid redundancy
Refinement – improving protocols to reduce stress & pain
Replacement – use other options than live animals, less invasive techniques?

3

Tinbergens 4 levels of analysis

Ultimate causes:
• Phylogeny – evolutionary origins, has it evolved?
• Function – effects on reproductive success, what is its current function?
Proximate causes:
• Development – genes/environment, how does it develop?
• Causation – stimuli/hormones, what immediately causes it?

4

Ultimate Causes

Phylogeny – evolutionary origins, has it evolved?
Function – effects on reproductive success, what is its current function?

5

Proximate Causes

Development – genes/environment, how does it develop?
Causation – stimuli/hormones, what immediately causes it?

6

Plesiomorphic

(ancestral) traits – found in a common ancestor of 2 or more species

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Apomorphic

(derived) traits – found in a more recently evolved species (not present in common ancestor)

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Homology

trait shared by 2+ species due to shared ancestor (plesiomorphic)

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Homoplasy

traits shared by 2+ species due to natural selection acting independently on each species (apomorphic)

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Behaviourism

comparative studies of observable behaviour only
Proximate causes (development – learning, mechanism/causation – stimuli)

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Comparative biology

how biological process (including behaviour) have gradually evolved

12

Cognitive ethology/Neuroethology

natural selection on mental processes/cognition

13

Behavioural ecology

ecology/evolution of behaviour and its fitness consequences

14

Lamarkian Evolution

transmutation of species
• Due to use vs disuse (teleological explanation of traits)
• Acquired traits were heritable (transgenerational epigenetic inheritance)

15

Darwin's dangerous idea

Theory of natural selection – nature selects the most stable and successful forms
(darwinian evolution)

16

3 conditions for natural selection

1. Variation
2. Heredity
3. Differences in reproductive success (fitness)

17

positive frequency-dependent selection

the fitness of a trait increases as it becomes more common in a population.

18

adaptation

A heritable trait that enhances fitness
• an evolutionary process that results in a population of individuals with traits best suited to the current environment.

19

fitness

survivorship and reproductions
• Measured in offspring’s offspring

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Pleiotrophy

effect of one gene on several different phenotypic traits

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Panglossian Paradigm

extreme adaptationist standpoint
• traits and structures explained as optimally designed by natural selection

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Exaptations

trait previously shaped by natural selection co-opted for a new use

23

Kin selection

type of natural selection
individuals increase their fitness by cooperating with close relatives

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sexual selection

natural selection acting on heritable traits affecting reproduction

25

3 conditions for replicators

1. Stability
2. Speed (fecundity)
3. Accuracy

26

broad sense heritabiltiy

includes all the genetic effects (variables) on the phenotype
Additive
Dominance
Eipstastic

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Additive effects

average effect of individual alleles on phenotype (no interaction with other genes or environment)

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narrow sense heritibiltiy

proportion on phenotypic variance that is due solely to additive (A) genetic values (most commonly reported)

29

how does gene variationn occur

1. Crossover of chromosomes in gametes (sex cells)
2. Point Mutations: replication error (rare) longer genetic unit more likely to be altered

30

Instintual/innate behaviours

• Performed the same way each time
• Fully expressed the first time the are exhibited
• Present in individuals raised in isolation

31

Reaction norm

range of behaviours expressed by a single phenotype in different environments

32

sign stimulus

component of the environment that triggers a specific instinctual behaviour