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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (214):
1

Coffee

A beverage made from the roasted seeds of the coffea plant

2

Most caffeinated coffee?

Medium roast

3

The longer the roast...

the darker the bean

4

Drip coffee

Hot water through filter

5

Espresso maker

Water moves through coffee grounds in form of steam

6

French press

Coffee beans and hot water soaked together

7

What's in coffee?

Caffeine
Oily substances
Antioxidants

8

Caffeine

A stimulant (wakes you up)

9

__% of North Americans consume _________ every day

90; caffeine

10

Most commonly consumed drug world wide

Caffeine

11

Physical effects of caffeine

Vary from person to person:
Nervousness, irritability, restlessness, insomnia, headaches, heart palpitations

12

Caffeine dependency...

is possible (withdrawal symptoms)

13

Caffeine increases blood pressure for ___hrs

3

14

What do they say about drinking caffeine?

Do it regularly or not at all!

15

Caffeine inhibits the absorption of _______

Calcium

16

Caffeine during pregnancy

Caffeine crosses placenta (if you drink caffeine, so does your baby)
High amounts of caffeine may increase risk of low birth weight and preterm birth

17

Caffeine recommendation during pregnancy and for non-pregnant women

2-3 cups

18

Other effects of caffeine?

May increase/decrease mental health conditions
May help prevent Alzheimer's
Effects sleep
Can enhance sports performance

19

Caffeine recommendation for women of childbearing age

Less than 300 mg per day

20

Caffeine recommendation for all adults

Less than 400 mg per day (2-4 cups of coffee or 9 cups of tea)

21

Kahweol and cafestol

Oily compounds in coffee
Increase LDL cholesterol levels
Associated with increased risk of heart disease
Filters keep these substances out (mostly found in French press coffee)

22

Oxidation

When electrons are taken off of atoms (damages cells and DNA - causing cancer)

23

Antioxidants

Reverse oxidation and fix damage (give e- away)

24

Antioxidants include

Chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, melanoidins

25

Confounding

Can't tell if something is causing a health effect or not

26

Coffee drinkers may be more likely to...

smoke, drink alcohol, have less healthy lifestyles

27

Tea

Soaked leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis

28

Black tea

Leaves are picked, oxidized and dried
(color comes from oxidation process)

29

Green tea

Leaves are not oxidized

30

White tea

Leaves are not oxidized and they are dried in the sun (bleaches color)

31

Oolong tea

Withered in sun and oxidized

32

Rooibos tea

Made from red bush plan

33

Herbal tea

Made from infusions of different plants (no caffeine)

34

What's in tea?

Caffeine
Antioxidants
Other good stuff
Tannins

35

Antioxidants in tea

Catechin

36

Catechin

Polyphenol
Antioxidant
Highest in green/white teas

37

L-Theanine

Amino acid derivative in tea that has calming effect and helps strengthen immune system

38

Tannins

Can bind minerals in digestive tract to inhibit absorption (especially IRON)

39

Health effects of tea

Improved CV health (>3 cups per day)
May help with body weight control
Increase bone mass
Prevents dental cavities
Improve immune system and mental acuity

40

Alcohol

A toxin (body has to detoxify it)

41

Ethanol

Scientific name for alcohol

42

Alcohol ___ __ ________ ___ _______ but is NOT a _________________

can be burned for energy; macronutrient

43

_____ per gram of alcohol

7 kcals

44

Fermentation

Process of making alcohol
Yeast/bacteria break down sugar into alcohol

45

Wine making

Grapes are crushed
Pulp is fermented with yeast (1-2 weeks)
Secondary fermentation/aging - wine is stored in casks to slowly ferment and mature (3-6 months)

46

White wine

Red/white grapes with skins removed

47

Fortified wines

Higher sugar content as juice is concentrated

48

More ______ + _____________ = more _______

sugar; fermentation; alcohol

49

Sparkling wine

Fermentation in bottle means CO2 is captured

50

Beer making

Malting - barley is soaked in water until the grain germinates, then the grain is dried (during germination starch --> maltose)
Hops add flavour
Yeast ferments the maltose to alcohol (2-4 weeks)

51

Alcohol digestion

No digestion required before absorption
Absorbed in the small intestine and stomach

52

Alcohol metabolization

Alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver

53

___% of alcohol consumed is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver

80

54

MEOS

Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system

55

_____ takes over when alcohol dehydrogenase is saturated

MEOS

56

___% of alcohol consumed is metabolized by MEOS

10

57

___% of alcohol is lost in ______ and ______

10; breath; urine

58

On average _____________________ per hour is metabolized

1 standard drink

59

Alcohol waiting to be metabolized is in the blood and raises _____ _______ _______

blood alcohol levels

60

1 drink

12 oz beer
10 oz wine cooler
5 oz wine
1.5 oz hard liquor

61

Moderate alcohol

Women: less than 10 drinks/week, no more than 2/day
Men: less than 15 drinks/week, no more than 3/day
Special occasions: number per day increases by one

62

Binge drinking

More than 5 drinks in a short time for a man
More than 4 drinks in a short time for woman

63

How much alcohol can be dangerous

Women: as little as 4-6 drinks
Men: as little as 6-8 drinks

64

_________ can put you over the legal limit

1 - 2 drinks

65

5-6 drinks/day for 10 years causes

Cirrhosis of the liver
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies

66

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

An alcohol induced dementia caused by Thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency

67

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

A whole range of disorders caused by alcohol intake during pregnancy:
Growth deficiency
Learning difficulties
Behavioural problems
Physical deformities

68

Moderate drinkers have a ________% lower risk of ___

20-40; CVD

69

Moderate alcohol intake ________ ____ and ________ _____ ________

increases HDL; decreases blood pressure

70

Red wine especially

Protects bones and improves mental function because it contains many polyphenols

71

Lipids

Large group of molecules that are not soluble in water

72

What makes things soluble in water?

Polarity

73

Triglycerides

Usually what we are talking about when we say "fat"
i.e. butter, canola oil, turkey/chicken
We eat them and store our body fat as them

74

Triglycerides ___% of dietary lipid

95

75

Triglycerides are made of

Glycerol backbone
3 fatty acids (long hydrophobic chains of carbon and hydrogen)

76

Short chain fatty acids

Fewer than 6 carbon atoms

77

Medium chain fatty acids

6-12 carbons

78

Long chain fatty acids

13 or more carbons

79

Fatty acid length affects

How it is digested and processed in body
Function in body
Properties before/when you eat it

80

Lauric acid

Makes chocolate smooth and melty in mouth

81

Degree of saturation

Refers to # of double bonds

82

Saturated fatty acids

No double bonds (this increases H)
Solid at room temperature (stacks easily)

83

Unsaturated fatty acids

1 or more double bonds
Liquid at room temperature
-Polyunsaturated
-Monounsaturated

84

MUFA

1 double bond

85

PUFA

2 or more double bonds

86

What foods have saturated fats?

Animal foods, tropical oils

87

What foods have monounsaturated fats?

Olive oil, canola oil, cashews, olives

88

What foods have polyunsaturated fats?

Canola, safflower, corn oil, fish, nuts and seeds

89

Every type of fat

HAS A COMBINATION

90

Cis and trans

Refer to the shape (around double bonds) of unsaturated fats

91

Cis fat

Hydrogen molecules on same side

92

Trans fat

Hydrogen molecules on opposite sides
Worse for heart health

93

Trans fats found in

Naturally in milk, beef, and cheese
Hydrogenated fats - shortening, pb

94

Naming fatty acids

# of carbons: # double bonds (where the last bond is)

95

Phospholipids

Make up cell membranes
Have a polar end and a non-polar end

96

Phospholipid polar head

Likes to interact with water

97

Sterols

Large group of hydrophobic compounds, found in plants and animals (cholesterol), having a four ring structure

98

Fat digestion

Mouth - chewing and lingual lipase
Stomach - churning into small droplets and gastric lipase
Small intestine - bile emulsifies fat into small droplets and pancreatic lipase break fatty acids off of glycerol

99

Micelles

Only way fats can be absorbed, allow fat in intestines to mix with water

100

Lipoproteins

Carries lipids in blood
Outside made of phospholipids that can interact with water with proteins embedded in the outer layer to help determine function

101

Chylomicrons

Type of lipoproteins that carry dietary fats from intestines to liver and rest of the body for burning or storage

102

VLDL

Very low density lipoproteins (turn into LDL) made in liver and transport fats to other parts of body that need it

103

Liver

Distribution hub for fats and site for repackaging

104

HDL

High density lipoproteins transport fats to and from liver

105

Why do we need lipids?

For structure and lubrication
For cell structure
Regulation of body processes
Regulators
ATP production for energy
Energy storage

106

1 g of fat provides ___kcals of energy

9

107

Stored fats

Give you energy reserves (most efficient form of stored energy)

108

Cells burn fat at _____ and during ________

rest; exercise

109

In healthy women fat makes up ______% of their body weight

25-35

110

Essential fatty acids

Have to be consumed or you will die of a deficiency

111

2 essential fatty acids and what they are necessary for?

Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid
-regulate blood clotting
-regulating inflammation
-normal brain development

112

Omega end

Boring end

113

Last double bond is from

Omega end

114

Where do you get Linoleic acid?

Oils, margarine, nuts and seeds

115

Where do you get alpha-linolenic acid?

Canola, flax, soy, fatty fish, omega eggs

116

AMDR for fat

20-35% of calories

117

CVD

Disease of heart, arteries, veins including heart disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, stroke

118

___% of deaths in Canada are from CVD

29

119

Atherosclerosis

Build up of fatty plaque inside veins/arteries

120

_________ and ____ fats increase risk of heart disease

Saturated; trans

121

______ and _______ _______________ ____ decrease risk of heart disease

MUFA; Omega-3; polyunsaturated fats

122

Leaky dump trucks

VLDL and LDL are lazy they are worst for heart health because they leak fats and cause a build up of plaque

123

Clean up trucks

HDL are helpful they go through the body and clean up fatty build up

124

LDL:HDL ratio

Measure or which "dump trucks" are winning

125

Increase LDL

Saturated fats

126

Increase LDL and decrease HDL

Trans fats

127

Increase VLDL

Added sugars

128

Cholesterol usually found in same foods as

Saturated fats

129

Decrease LDL

MUFA

130

Decrease VLDL and increase HDL

Omega-3 PUFA fats
Exercise

131

Omega-3 PUFA

Healthy fats
Help babies' brains develop
Help prevent mental decline with aging
Decrease risk of CVD (improve blood lipid levels and decrease blood clotting)

132

Omega 3 fats found in

Fatty fish (salmon, trout, herring, mackeral)

133

Two types of long chain Omega 3s

EPA
DHA

134

Eating too many omega 3 fats can lead to ______________

Hemorrhaging (clotting ability too low - risk of bleeding to death)

135

Low fat options are ___ _______ ________

not always healthier, aim to eat more healthy fats instead of fat substitutes

136

Proteins

Large molecules containing C, H, O and NITROGEN, with many functions

137

Amino acids

Protein building blocks:
-amino group (H2N)
-acid group (opposite amino group)
-hydrogen
-different side chains

138

Where is protein found in the diet?

Meat and alternatives and milk and alternatives

139

How many amino acids?

20

140

How many essential amino acids?

9

141

Essential amino acids

Have to be consumed our bodies can't make them

142

How many non-essential amino acids?

11

143

Non-essential amino acids

Body makes them by transamination

144

Transamination

Take molecule with side chain and add it to another molecule with side chain

145

Peptide bonds

Attach amino acids to make proteins (acid connected to amine group)

146

Dipeptide

2 amino acids

147

Tripeptide

3 amino acids

148

Oligopeptide

A few amino acids

149

Polypeptide

A lot of amino acids

150

One or more polypeptide strands

Make up proteins

151

Protein shape

Determined by folding and determines function

152

Protein digestion

Mouth - mechanical digestion
Stomach - acid denatures protein and pepsin breaks long proteins into smaller chunks and single AAs
Small intestine - Proteases and peptidases break down remaining proteins into AAs
Free AAs can be absorbed into intestinal cells

153

Denature

Protein shape gets destroyed, strings out, enzymes can get at it and break individual AAs

154

Denatured proteins

Don't work

155

Recipe book

DNA tells body how to string amino acids together from a "pool" of amino acids

156

Making proteins

Central dogma:
1. mRNA makes copy
2. tRNA translates it to protein lingo
3. Ribosome helps to shape
4. AAs line up in order accordingly

157

Your body can't make protein if

There aren't enough of all the essential AAs

158

What do proteins do?

Provide structure
Enzymes
Transport (cell membranes)
Transport (in blood)
Maintains immune system
Contractile proteins
Protein hormones
Maintains fluid balance
Maintains acid base balance
Provide energy

159

Antibodies

Proteins that destroy invaders (i.e. bacteria, viruses)

160

Edema

Swelling and fluid build up in tissues

161

Deamination

Getting rid of nitrogen

162

Protein deamination results in

Toxic ammonia, liver turns ammonia into urea, urea goes out in pee

163

If you don't eat enough proteins

Your body breaks down muscle for amino acids

164

Marasmus

Severe protein energy malnutrition, severe wasting, most common in young impoverished children

165

Marasmus results in

Infections
Dehydration
Electrolyte imbalance
Heart failure

166

Cachexia

Severe wasting of diseased adults (cancer, AIDS, anorexia, elderly)

167

Kwashiorkor

"The disease the first child gets when the second is born"
Common in children 1-3 yrs in impoverished countries

168

Is there such a thing as too much protein?

YES above 35% of kcal, increases risk of heart disease, kidney disease, and cancer, contributes to bone loss

169

What happens to extra protein?

Nitrogen stripped off extra amino acids and then turned into sugars/fats to be burned for energy or stored as fat

170

RDA for protein

0.8 g/kg body weight but of course some people (athletes, growing people, hospital patients) need more and some people (overweight people) need less

171

To calculate the amount of protein that someone who is overweight needs

Use a healthy body weight for a person of their height

172

Complete proteins

Contain all the essential amino acids
Animal foods - meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk
Very few plants - soy and quinoa

173

Incomplete proteins

Don't contain all the amino acids (considered lower in quality)
Proteins found in grains
Beans

174

Complementary proteins

Foods/meals that contain a combination of complete and incomplete proteins so that people get what they need

175

Lacto-vegetarian

Eats milk

176

Ovo-vegetarian

Eats eggs

177

Pesco-vegetarian

Eats fish

178

Vegetarian diets are

High in fibre, vitamins, minerals and low in saturated fat

179

Challenges of vegetarian diet

Hard to get enough protein and iron

180

Extra challenge of vegan diet

Vitamin B12 found exclusively in animal foods
Calcium and vitamin D from milk and alternatives
Iron - try and pick high iron sources of protein

181

Eat iron foods with

Vitamin C

182

Avoid eating ____ and ________ together

Iron; calcium

183

Energy balance equation

Energy intake = energy expenditure

184

Gain weight if

Energy in is more than energy going out

185

Lose weight if

Energy burned is more than energy going in

186

Basal metabolic rate

Energy needed to just sit and do nothing besides stay alive

187

BMR is _____% of our energy expenditure

60-75

188

Factors that affect BMR

Lean body mass
Gender
Growth
Body size
Age
Stress, injury, illness
Drugs
Thyroid hormone levels

189

Energy expenditure with exercise

20-30%, you burn more when you do more intense exercise, the longer you exercise and the heavier you are

190

Thermic effect of food

Energy needed to digest, absorb, transport and metabolize food

191

_____% of our energy intake is used to metabolize our food

5-10

192

All excess kcal are stored as ____

Fat

193

What is a healthy body weight?

A body that has enough fat mass and enough muscle mass for health but not too much

194

Too much fat

Increases risk of disease

195

Too little fat

Compromises bodily functions

196

BMI

(Body mass index) the main way health professionals determine if our body weight is healthy it is based on body weight (kg)/ height (m)

197

Normal body weight

BMI: 18.5-24.9

198

Underweight

BMI less than 18.5

199

Overweight

BMI: 25.0 - 30.0

200

Obese

BMI: 30 - 35

201

Percentiles

Show how a child is doing relative to children of the same age and gender group
The percent of people below a certain number

202

Problems with BMI

Can't distinguish between fat/muscle

203

In children BMI is compared to

Children of the same age/sex

204

Optimal fat level for women

20-35% of total body weight

205

Optimal fat level for men

8-22% of total body weight

206

Skin folds

Measures thickness of fat under skin

207

Bod pod

Measures volume by air displacement

208

Visceral adipose tissue

Fat around organs

209

Subcutaneous adipose tissue

Fat under skin

210

_______ are at higher risk of chronic disease

Apples (carry weight around middle section - more visceral adipose tissue)

211

Waist circumference

Measure halfway between ribs and hip bone

212

Waist circumference risk for men

greater than 102 cm

213

Waist circumference risk for women

greater than 88 cm

214

Thrifty genotype theory

Suggest genes cause some people to expend less energy during rest and activity