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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (122):
1

How is the majority of land on earth used?

Cropland and rangeland.

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Cropland

20% of all surface land is needed for agriculture to feed. Equal to the size of Africa.

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Rangeland

Grazing livestock, meat and dairy.

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Land use extensification

When natural ecosystems are converted into areas for human use

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Land use intensification

Increasing the intensity of human land use

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Issues with land use intensification

More fertilizers- more pollution
More resistant plants

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Urbanization

Increase in proportion of people living in urban areas.
-overall population increasing
-rural population decreasing

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Issues with urbanization

Waste, pollution, urban sprawl, transportation

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Reforestation

Complicated: rows of the same trees (monoculture), costly to recreate an entire ecosystem, selective harvesting

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Deforestation causes

Wood products, fuel, cropland, rangeland.
Ex) Brazil and Australia

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Reforestation

Replanting trees

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Aforestation

Planting trees where there were none previously

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Impacts of deforestation

-carbon released by burning and decomposition of trees and other plants
-loss of ability to absorb carbon
-carbon from fossil fuels burned in process of deforestation

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Issues with cropland

-loss to urban sprawl
-soil degradation: erosion, salinization, water logging

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Rangelands

-quickly cause irreversible erosion, especially in semi-arid places. ex) Australia
-overgrazing
-rotational grazing

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Desertification

Land degradation in arid location, eventually becomes desert

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Future of land use

Cities: high density, mass transit, less energy use.
-eat lower on the food chain. Requires less resources.

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4 challenges for increased agriculture production?

Irrigation, soil, tillage, fertilizer

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Irrigation

Increasing complexity and demand for water.
-salination of soils (inadequate drainage and evaporation)
-leads to desertification (loss of vegetation)
-decline in freshwater bodies (ex. Aral Sea)

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Soils

Soil erosion.

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Techniques to prevent soil erosion

-manuring
-fallowing and crop rotation
-terracing sloped fields
-maintaining vegetation cover
-importance of understanding soil types

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Types of tillage

Strip/zone tillage, minimum tillage, zero tillage

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3 functions of tillage

-provides a seed bed
-controls weeds
-incorporates organic matter

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Fertilizer

NITORGEN.
-naturally from the atmosphere, but not enough.
-in farmed soils it reduces over time.
Ways to increase nitrogen is by using manures and planting legumes

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Ammonia synthesis

Process to convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia.
Ex) Haber-Bosch process
-can lead to eutrophication

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Eutrophication

Excessive nutrients in a body of water.
Often from land run off.
Too much plant growth, depletes oxygen when these plants die

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Green Revolution

-rapid development of improved plants and animals.
-high yielding varieties of rice and wheat. (Followed by other crops).

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Negative impacts of the Green Revolution

-Environmental impacts
-neocolonialism (downgrading local knowledge)

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5 major factors/advances in the Green Revolution

1. Mechanization
2. Fertilization
3. Irrigation
4. Pesticides
5. Plant breeding

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Cultivation

20% earths land is currently used in cropland and cultivated

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Cultivation needs...

Food, fuel, fibres, pharmaceuticals, luxury goods

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2 issues with food security

-crop failure in subsistence agriculture
-sudden change in markets (ex. Increase in price)

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Food security - chronic

Food availability is always low

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Food security - transitory

Disruption in food supply

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Issues with food aid

1. Can depress prices in the receiving country.
2. May not be effectively distributed
-inadequate transportation
-government control

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Origins of agriculture

-transition from foraging to farming around 12 000 years ago
-plants and animals domesticated a number of times by different populations
-diffusion of crops between neighboring regions
-colonialism brought crops from Americas
-industrialization if agriculture related to the emergence of capitalism

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Food security

Where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.

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Famine

Food shortage in a region so severe that it leads to starvation

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Causes of famine

Drought, disaster, conflict, and corruption

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Causes of hunger and famine

Environment, poverty, conflict

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Environment (hunger and famine)

-soil degradation
-climate change
-lack of water

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Poverty (hunger and famine)

-lack of resources
-uneven distribution
-hunger and poverty also reinforce the other

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Conflict (hunger and famine)

-displacement of people
-control of resources and transportation
-hunger used as a means of control

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Malnourished

Insufficient or excessive intake of nutrients.
Specific nutrients insufficiency.

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Undernourishment

Caloric insufficiency

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How do we increase food production?

1. Increased irrigation
-already at maximum
2. Increasing amount of agricultural lands
-already using all good cropland
3. Eating lower on the food chain
-not popular, culturally difficult
4. Improve food distribution
-equity issues, difficult with natural disasters, instability of governments

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Monoculture

The planting of large areas with a single species or even a single strain of subspecies in farming

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4 most popular foods

Wheat, corn, rice, potatoes

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Breeding

-selective adaptation
-colour, flavour, size, resistance to temps, floods
-manipulate genes at genetic level

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Conventional breeding

Takes advantage of genetic changes over multiple generations

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Genetic engineering

-direct manipulation of genes, within an organism
-only way to transfer between species
-specific and deliberate alteration of genes
-create new combinations not possible in nature

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GMOs

Organisms that have been genetically engineered

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Transgenic organism

Genes from another species

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Concerns of GMOs

Improper testing, unintentionally pass on to other non-target organisms, can accumulate in the environment

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Mycotoxins

-naturally occurring from fungi and molds
-in small amounts not an issue
-can kill animals and humans
-"natural" can also be toxic

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Cash crops

Crops grown to be traded or sold, profitable

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Subsistence crops

Crops used directly for food by a farmer or sold locally where the food is used directly, food that is needed

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Demand-based agriculture

Limited by demand and not resources

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Resource-based agriculture

Production is limited by the availability of resources

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Organic food

Produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming. General features include practices that strive to cycle resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity

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Organic food yields

5-50% less.
Higher costs and limited supply.
Typically less pesticides on organic food.

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4 approaches for sustainable agriculture

1. Reduce water, fertilizers, and pesticides.
-precision agriculture (drip irrigation)
2. Reduce agriculture where water is scarce
3. Limit biofuels
4. Limit resource intensive food growth - like meat

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Ecology

Branch of science dealing with the relationship of living things to each other and their environment

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Ecotoxicology

Studies the effects of chemicals and other toxic agents on everything from organisms to ecosystems (not people), with an emphasis on adverse effects, but even 'positive' effects need to be understood and characterized

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Hazard

Combination of toxicity and intensity of exposure.
-no toxicity or no exposure results in no hazard

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Risk

The probability that a substance will be hazardous

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Risk involves 3 things

Toxicity, intensity of exposure, probability of exposure

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Toxic

Degree to which a chemical substance can damage an organism

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Bioaccumulation

Increase in substances in an organism

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Biomagnification

Increasing build up of toxins in organisms in higher levels of the food chain

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Dilution paradigm

"The solution to pollution is dilution"
-replaced by the boomerang paradigm: what you throw away can come back and hurt you

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Globalization

Complex combination of economic, political, and cultural change.
-evident in accumulation of possessions
-has accelerated since the 1980s

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Globalization today

-inexpensive manufacturing
-in 1990s specialization and product concentration
-highly mechanized/automated facilities owned by few companies

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Product concentration

Control of markets by single often multinational corporations

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Product concentrations- causes

1. Distance overcome more easily
-efficient transportation, international communications
2. Increased dominance of transnational corporations.
-corporations not confined to one state
-some more powerful than some governments

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Product concentration- effects

1. Homogenization of cultures
-suppression of diversity
-uniformity of cultural landscape
-spread of English
2. Increased connectedness (both result and cause)
3. Blurs in the distinction between developed and emerging markets

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Impact on trade

1. Goods and information traded
-greater volumes, faster speeds
2. Greater interdependence
-connectedness could lead to stability
-benefits need to be well distributed (they're not)

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Criticisms of world trade

-inequity and negative impacts on developing nations
-potential for significant control on populations
-environmental problems
-promotes export-oriented economies

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Foreign debt

Less developed countries owing money to international lending agencies and foreign banks

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GINI coefficient

A measure of income/wealth inequality from a scale of 0 to 1.
-perfect equality of income = 0
-perfect inequality of income = 1

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Glocalization

Ability of a nation to retain its distinct identity while taking advantage of globalization

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Developing nations and waste trade

MDCs
-higher costs to deal with waste, especially hazardous.
Export to LDCs

83

Shipbreaking

-contaminated ships broken up for scrap metal
-if done in MDC, costs exceed price of steel recovered

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What are plastics?

Materials based on polymers

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Polymers

Large repeating molecules

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Composites

Included with other materials

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Laminates

Layered on another material

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Qualities of modern plastic

1. Successful- low cost, superior performance
2. Enduring- have become global litter problem

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Plastic from fossil fuels

-produced from crude oil, natural gas, and coal
-300 billion tonnes per year of plastics is produced. Expected to triple by 2050

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Benefits of plastic

-buildings (pipes, valves, flooring, siding, etc)
-medicine (IV tubes, pacemakers)
-food (packaging extends shelf life)
-transportation (lightweight)
-3D printing (everything)

91

Issues with plastic

-waste (91% of total produced plastic is not recycled)
-microplastics
-hazardous to wildlife
-unsightly
-expensive to management

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Great Pacific Garbage Patch

Centre of Pacific where gyres accumulate and concentrate garbage.
-80% marine debris comes from land

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Solutions to plastic use

Use less
-can use innovative design so items need less material
-recycling produces other materials
-create plastics that are degradable
-new generation of bioplastics

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Rare earth minerals

Relatively rare minerals used in high tech industries.
Ex) tantalum and lithium

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Columbite-tantalite

-"coltan"
-used in the electronics industry
-contain high field strength elements used in the electronics industry

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Tantalum

-high melting point
-low electrical leakage and high capacity
-light weight
-metal least rejected by the human body

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Lithium

-high specific heat capacity
-very reactive
-found in minerals such as PETALITE and SPODUMENE
-high power to weight ratio

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Uses of lithium

-batteries
-cell phones and laptops
-lithium-ion batteries are rechargeable, lighter and long lasting

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Pegamatites

-crystalline igneous rock
-associated with dikes
-form from magma containing a lot of water and under pressure
-sometimes very rare and valuable elements
-can be found in Africa

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Dike

Crack in the earth's surface where magma flows in and cools. That's where we find pegamatites

101

Coltan and the Congo

1.increased demand from computers and other technologies
2. Illegal extraction
-funds guerilla warfare
-damages the environment
-dangerous mining conditions for people
-threatens populations of gorillas
3. Described as a blood mineral

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Issues with blood minerals

-child labour
-dozens of reported deaths
-birth defects

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Uses of boron

-coatings on turbine blades and rocket nozzles
-bullet proof clothing
-detergents, soaps, cleaners, cosmetics

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Main ways that we consume

Lifestyles, food, shelter, goods, mobility, experiences

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Ways we consume: lifestyles

-permanent settlements = able to have more stuff.
-ability to consume is increased by our ability to move stuff around the world
-globalization results in cheaper products and cheaper transportation

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Canada's food waste carbon footprint size?

3rd largest

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Ways we consume: home

-geothermal
-natural gas (most common in MB)
-electricity
-fuel oil
-propane

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Average amount of e-waste in USA

9.4 million tons

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Average amount of phones disposed of every day

350, 000

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Amount of e-waste recycled

12.5%

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Fast fashion

Clothing made cheaply and easily replaced

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Planned obsolescence

Meant to be thrown away when broken

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Perceived obsolescence

Staying current; throw away just because

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Solutions to over consumption

-minimalism
-shift from goods and services to experiences
-more transparency in media and social media

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Solutions to food waste

1. Meal planning
2. Labelling/ fridge organizing
3. Freeze
4. Shopping: picking the food that doesn't look perfect

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Solutions: home

-where we chose to live
-types of homes we buy
-energy efficient decisions

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Solutions- electronics

-buy fewer upgrades
-RECYCLE
-look for ethically sourced products

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Solutions- fashion

-more transparency in the supply chain
-environmental and social activism as a brand

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Solution- transportation

-transit
-infrastructure
-culture that supports these initiatives

120

Tourism economies

10% of global GDP

121

Export earnings and tourism

Tourism is ranked 3rd

122

Tourism (UNWTO)

-10% GDP
-1/10 jobs
-US $1.4 trillion in exports
-7% of world's exports
-30% of services exports