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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (44):
1

Economic Issues

Opinions on these types of issues tend to correspond to self-interest

2

Social issues

opinions on these types of issues tend to correspond to values

3

World views/cultural cognition

the tendency of individuals to form beliefs about societal dangers that reflect and reinforce their commitments to particular visions of the ideal society

4

Egalitarians/Solidarists

these individuals are in favor or regulating commercial activities

5

Individualists/Hierarchists

these individuals are in favor of deregulating markets

6

Information Deficit Model

Behavior/attitudes/opinions are due to a lack of understanding (or lack of info)

7

Persuasion

- this is most effective when people are moderately aware of issues
- More knowledge leads to people holding more extreme beliefs on the issue

8

Journalistic Norms

Objectivity, fairness, accuracy, and balance are all examples of these

9

Media Coverage

when it comes to aggregate public concern over climate change, the salience of elite cues and extreme weather, for example, are boosted by this

10

Congressional Dynamics

the strongest predictor of concern over climate change, according to Carmichael and Brulle

11

Structural Equation Models

A form of analysis used to examine linkages between variables

12

Outlier Voices

Skeptics, denialists, or contrarians can all be considered

13

Precautionary principle

the government framework would call for regulations on a toxin if the risk in teh production of the toxicant is in question

14

Pluralism

the political philosophy that affirms the existence of multiple competing interests

15

Receive-Accept-Sample Model

- this is Zaller's model that predicts when people will accept or reject arguments based on whether it aligns with their predispositions
- People accept arguments consistent with political predispositions and reject arguments inconsistent with predispositions

16

Agenda setting

correlation between issues voters believed were important and issues reported prominently in the media

17

Framing

Determines how we think about something by making characteristics of an issue more applicable to predispositions

18

Generation effect

different age cohorts develop different opinions

19

Period effect

when public opinion changes in similar fashion across cohorts in response to current events

20

Life cycle effect

when people's opinions change as they age

21

Episodic framing

Failure to place news stories in sufficient context (in contrast to thematic framing)

22

Passive inclusion

- the government does not make active efforts to provide interest groups with access, but every interest group in theory has an opportunity to have their voice heard
- "Whatever constellation of interest groups emerges from society at any given time can attempt to influence gov't"

23

Strategic accommodation

When a political actor accepts an outcome short of their first preference due to perceived political realities

24

Policy drift

Prolonged, systematic failures of government to respond to societal changes

25

Venue shopping

when political actors strategically seek decisions by favorable institutions

26

Institutional Racism

This is the continuous discrimination that ensures lesser educational and employment opportunities to people of color resulting in lower socioeconomic status limiting populations' residence in more affluent spaces. This practice allows for discriminatory real estate and lending practices and the white flight phenomenon.

27

Double Disproportionality

This is both the unevenness in the production of harm (polluter disproportionality) and unevenness is the exposure to environmental harm (exposure disproportionality)

28

Environmental Injustice

the unequivocal exposure to environmental hazards among people based on race, gender, class, and nation.

29

Environmental Racism

- policies, practices or political directives that intentionally affect or disadvantage people, groups, or communities based on their race or color.
- race and class are determinants of environmental hazards

30

Physical impacts of environmental racism

people of color disproportionately suffer from the health issues linked to the environment

31

Mental impacts of environmental racism

living somewhere with high levels of pollution elicits anxiety, fear, and feelings of injustice. The toll of emotional stress is that it can exacerbate the health risks and induce chronic illness.

32

Bean v. Southwestern Waste Management Corp

The first successful lawsuit challenging institutional racism using civil rights laws

33

Collective grievances

political grievances experienced by marginalized groups that accrue and collect over time

34

Political opportunity

a political event or critical juncture, which allows for a protest or social movement to occur

35

Astroturf organizations

the use of fake grassroots campaign strategies, which has the goal of swaying public opinion but are backed and funded by large corporate interests

36

Charmichael and Brulle Reading

- Elites/advocacy groups critical in influencing climate change concern
- Strongest effects on public concern are a function of increases in Congressional attention on climate change, which in turn influences public concern about climate change

37

Forming public opinion

values + beliefs = attitudes --> opinion

38

2 Ingredients for Social Movements

Collective Grievances + Political Opportunity

39

1969 Santa Barbara Oil Spill

- 3 million gallons of oil spilled off the coast of SB over a 10 day period
- Inspired Earth Day, created momentum for EPA, Clean Water Act, Endangered species Act

40

Ex of Active Exclusion

Regan and broad deregulatory agenda

41

Memory work

In remediation, necessary to avoid the erasure of narratives and struggles

42

Dryzek Reading

- Environmental movements in the US have been dominated by moderate mainstream orgs that utilize the plurality of institutional lobbying channels
- It may be a culture for US government agencies to consider public input, but that does not mean that agencies are required to abide by it

43

Edwards and Pruden Reading

Research requires building a cohesive scientific team that puts ethics first and is ready to volunteer for a good cause

44

Barron Reading

People and institutions engaged in remediation projects should be challenged to think beyond the current structures of environmental remediation and pay closer attention to grassroots demands for justice over the long term