Dissociative Anesthetic with mild analgesia
Schedule 3 controlled drug
Short term anesthetic procedure
Rapid Onset of action
No reversal agent
Ultra Fast acting onset
wild margin of safety
smooth recovery & rapid recovery
treatment of status epilepticus
Safe on liver & kidney disease
Valium (Diazepam) and Midazolam
Controlled Substance - schedule IV
Skeletal muscle relaxation
Not effective analgesic
Not effective sedative
Produces sedative & analgesia
fewer adverse effects than xylazine
Agonist - Antagonist
Sedative with analgesia
Controlled substance - Schedule IV
Mild-moderate viseral pain
decrease respiratory rate
dcrease tidal volume
Pre-anesthetic sedative w/o analgesic
not controlled substance
decreases allergic effect
Decrease seizure threshold
Prevention: manual ventilation. Bagging
An animal that is in a Sx plane of anesthesia should not respond in any way to any procedure that is being done to it?
Why do we check the pulse strength during Sx
It is a rough indictator of B.P.
Measures the difference between systolic and diastolic B.P. & vessel diameter
2 ways to check for proper ET placement?
condensation on tube
movement of resevoir bag
2 signs we wait for before extubation?
Acceptable places for observing MM color besides gums?
2 factors contributing to poor thermoregulation
Open body cavity
no shiver reflex
Abnormal pulse-oximeter value?
What two things does a pulse oximeter measure
Measures O2 Saturation & heart rate
- Normal: 95%+
- Abnormal: Less than 95%
- Hypoxemic: 90-95%
- Therapy required: 90%
- Medical emergency: 85% for more than 30 secs.
Transmission probes (clothes pin) on tongue, pinna, lip
Reflective probes on hollow organ - esophagus or rectum
Normal exhaled CO2 level on capnometer?
Measures CO2 in air that is inhaled and exhaled
End Tidal CO2 monitor (ETCO2)
Reflects Arterical CO2 levels
Mainstream: sensor placed b/t endotracheal tube and breathing circcuit
Sidestream: sensor located in computer monitor where air is pulled by a tube that is attached b/t endotracheal tube and breathing circuit
Inspiration: CO2 is 0mm Hg
Expiration: CO2 is 35-45mm Hg
Name 2 functions of an anesthesia machine?
Deliver anesthesia (Sevoflurane or Isoflurane)
How do we determine the volume of oxygen (L) left in the tank?
PSI x 0.3 = liter
Pressure reducing valve reduces oxygen to what pressure before entering anesthetic machine?
What does pressure manometer do?
Measures gas pressure within breathing circuit
Normal value 20cm H20
During bagging pressure should not exceed how much?
do not exceed 20cm of H20
Function of vaporizer?
Know traits of a precision vaporizer (McKelvey)
Function: Turns liquid to gas
Trait: Controls the amount of anesthesia delivered
How do we determine proper reservoir bag size?
How full should reservoir bag be at all times?
How do you properly check for leaks ? Bag an animal? Extubate?
60ml~90ml / Kg
Close pop off valve, squeeze resevoir bag to 20cm H2O and see if manometer decreases or not
Flowrate: 50mL / kg / min
What’s difference between asepsis and surgical asepsis?
Asepsis is complete absence of microorganisms (impossible to achieve in Sx)
Sx asepsis is the body of techniques designed to maintain an object or area in a condition as free of microorganisms as possible.
Why do we use steam under pressure when sterilizing instruments rather than boiling water or free-flowing steam?
sporecidal/ kills endospores
What’s temp we need to achieve in the autoclave? Pressure?
121C or 250F for 20 minutes
Pressure: 15 psi
What is the sterile area of scrubbed personnel?
Frong, above waist to shoulders
What’s the contact time of chlorhexidine?
What’s the contact time of povidone iodine?
What’s cold sterilization and how well does it work?
How should a surgical area be properly sanitized and disinfected and how often?
it should be sanitized between each patient
Types of disinfectants and antiseptics?
• What’s a hemostat used for?
to clamp off vessels, tissues
What’s the difference between Kelly & Crile hemostats?
Kelly has serration only half way of the jaw
Crile has serration all the way of the jaw
• Which is more traumatic, Ferguson angiotribe or Rochester-Carmalt?
• Which is more traumatic, Doyen intestinal or Halsted mosquito?
Halsted Mosquito hemostat forcep
What is the most important difference between Senn & Weitlaner retractors?
Senn is hand-held
Weitlaner is self-retaining
What’s the difference between Snook & Covault ovariectomy hooks?
snook is spade shape
Covault has a ball like tip
Where will the veterinarian make her/his first incision?
Spay: caudal to the umbilicus
Neuter: Prepucial incision
What does the ovarian pedicle consist of?
Name the 3 layers in the closure?
• What is the main reason we do a 3-layer closure?
decrease dead space and fluid formation
Name 2 types of absorbable sutures?
Monacril - under 21 days
PDS - 180 days
Vicryle - 42 days
Name 2 types of nonabsorbable sutures?
when wound suture breaks open
What’s first-intention wound healing?
healing via stitches.
What’s second-intention wound healing
when would we choose this?
when skin cannot be pulled together
What are 4 stages of wound healing?
Debridement (Clean up)
• What is it called when suture is attached to needle during manufacture?
Prepackaged suture material
Role of Surgical Assistant
postioning the patient
Lister bandage scissors
Knoles bandage scissors
wire suture cutting scissors
Littauer suture removal scissors
Cobalt spay hook
Snook spay hook
Doyan Intestinal Forceps