Flashcards in Midterm Deck (65):
No discernible or consistent beat; cannot tap your foot along
A consistent beat without a pattern of accented or unaccented beats
A consistent beat with a recurring pattern of accented beats
Groups that can be evenly divided (e.g. duple or triple)
Asymmetric groups of 2 and 3 groups (common in Eastern European, Arab, Persian and Indian music)
More than one meter existing in the same piece of music
Pace of music, expressed in BPM, independent of meter
- The highness or lowness of a sound
- High sounds vibrate a higher frequency than lower sounds
- The pitch an octave above any other pitch vibrates at double the frequency
The distance between two pitches
The group of pitches/tones that makeup one octave
A succession of notes, varying in pitch, that have a recognizable shape
What melodies are made up of (e.g. Twinkle Twinkle Little Star)
The precise tuning of the pitches in a scale and the exact frequency each pitch vibrates at
The distinctiveness of a particular voice or instrument, tone colour
How is timbre created?
The presence or lack of harmonics and overtones present in a sound
The loudness or softness of a piece of music (e.g. crescendo)
The perceived relationship of simultaneous musical sounds
- A single melody, the simplest musical texture
- 1 person singing with accompaniment
- Many people performing the same melody
- A main melody supported by other voices
- A pianist playing chords with one hand and the melody with the other
- Multiple independent, simultaneous melodies
- Common in Western classical music
- 2+ voices performing the same basic melody with minor ornamental variations
- Common in some forms of West Asian music
Repeated melodies sung with new words each time (AAAA)
- Common in Old British folk songs
2 contrasting melodies
1) Verse is sung with new words each time
2) The chorus contains the same words each time (AB)
Complex, does not repeat its entire melody
Common in Western classical music
any musical work
A piece containing vocals
And sound-making thing
How do humans differ from animals? (3)
- People are aware of their own mortality
- We seek meaning
We have an imagination
What are the 5 characteristics of myth?
1) Rooted in the experience of death and fear of extinction
2) Inseparable from ritual
3) About the unknown
4) Puts us in the right spiritual or psychological posture for right action in this world or the next
5) Speaks of another plane that exists alongside our own world and supports it
What is the function/truth of myth
They are true because they are effective, forcing us to change our minds and hearts (instead of providing us with factual information)
What are the ages of myth? (5)
3) Early Civilizations
5) Great Western transformation
What are the 5 ways Christianity historically categorized other faiths?
1) Created by evil forces
2) Corrupted, strayed from the "original truth" (assumption of monotheism)
3) Demonstrably inferior
4) Containing symbolic Christian truths
5) Expressing the spiritual capacity of all humans to come to some understanding of the divine
What is rationalism in terms of understanding religion? (3)
- Regards reason as man's highest faculty: "if you can't prove it, then I don't believe it"
- Rejecting supernatural explanations of religious history
- 17th C. "age of reason"
What is universalism in terms of understanding religion? (2)
- All regions are pointing to the same truth
- Share big concepts, details may differ
What is a hierophany?
- Any experience of the sacred or holy
- How we get outside of our daily existence
What is a shaman?
A practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with a spirit world
What are the cross-cultural criteria of a shaman?
1960s: doctor, psychiatrist, law enforcer, protector, creative artist
2005: be able to pull on the powers of nature and speak to the dead
Today: no clear-cut, agreed upon criteria
What is Shinto?
A traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently in order to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past
What does kami mean? How does it relate to animism?
God, deity, divinity, or spirit - animism believes that there is kami in everything.
What is Tsugaru Shamisen? (2)
Both the genre of Shamisen music from the Tsugaru peninsula and the instrument it is performed with
What is an itako?
- A blind medium
- Not by choice
- Receives training from older itakos
- Low ranking in society
- Speak to the dead
- Part of a guild
What is a gomiso?
- Choose to be mediums
- Training requires physical effort
- Low ranking in society
- Don't speak to the dead
- Work individually
What is Osore-zan ("Mount Fear")?
A summer festival is held in the area when itako gather. It is not clear when this began, but it is assumed to be around the time when the railroad from the bottom to the top of the peninsula opened in 1921. It is now a common place to find itako.
According to Judith Becker, what is trance?
A state of mind characterized by:
1) intense focus
2) loss of strong sense of self
3) access to knowledge and experiences not accessible in non-trance states
What are examples of types of trances? (6)
2) possession (itako)
3) shamanic (itako)
4) communal (concert)
5) aesthetic (art)
6) isolated moments of transcendence (in nature)
What is the Rangda/Barong ritual of Bali?
- Intends to restore the balance between the world of people and the world of spirits
- Traditionally in response to crop failure, pestilence, mental illness
Who are Rangda and Barong?
The evil witch and the good mythical beast
What is gamelan?
The traditional music of Indonesia, made up of mostly percussive instruments
What is emergent behaviour/connectionism?
The idea that massive groupings of neutrons (called “maps”) that exist in various parts of the brain are simultaneously stimulated to create any experience.
What is a physiological metonym?
A metonym: the whole is invoked by part (“Ottawa” stands in for “Canadian government”)
Physiological metonym: a piece of music invokes certain feelings that are “in no way internist to the piece of music” (like me and Blinded By the Light)
What are the noetics of trance?
It presents to the trancer a special type of knowledge, nearly always accompanied by a sense of absolute certainty concerning that knowledge.
What is rhythmic entertainment?
If different rhythmic firings of neurons activate different parts of the brain, maybe different musical rhythms activate different parts of the brain.
Who is Siddhartha Gautama?
- Lived a sheltered life until he was 29
- Attained enlightenment at 35
What are the Four Noble Truths?
1) All life is suffering (all life is impermanent)
2) Suffering is caused by desire (to keep things the way they are)
3) There is a way to end desire
4) It is the eight-fold path
Who is Bodhidharma?
A Buddhist monk who left India for China and founded Ch'an Buddhism
What is Ch'an Buddhism? (5)
- Taoist influence
- Emphasis on discipline
- Enlightenment is the goal
- Rejects the idea of Buddha as God
- Temples, scriptures, words, images are unimportant
What is Zen Buddhism? (5)
- Tries to get around reason to achieve enlightenment
- Through koans
- Adopted by upper-class medieval samurai
- Influential in art, literature and theatre of Japan
- Fuke Sect: Suizen - blowing meditation, komusō - baskets on head while playing
What is a koan?
Questions that don't have answers
e.g. what is the sound of one hand clapping?
What does Satori mean?
Enlightenment, or seeing one's true nature
Zen in the West (5)
- D.T. Suzuki: Essays in Zen Buddhism: First Series (1927)
- Alan Watts: The Way of Zen (1957)
- Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance
- Zen as a marketing term
What is Shakuhachi?
What is Hōki?
A shakuhachi instrument, for meditation used by Suizen
What is Gakki?
A shakuhachi instrument, for music
What is Kata?
Form or shape, the artistic execution of the musician - What is imitated by the learner.