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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (65):
1

Free meter

No discernible or consistent beat; cannot tap your foot along

2

Pulsatile

A consistent beat without a pattern of accented or unaccented beats

3

Metered

A consistent beat with a recurring pattern of accented beats

4

Divisive meters

Groups that can be evenly divided (e.g. duple or triple)

5

Additive meters

Asymmetric groups of 2 and 3 groups (common in Eastern European, Arab, Persian and Indian music)

6

Polymeter

More than one meter existing in the same piece of music

7

Tempo

Pace of music, expressed in BPM, independent of meter

8

Pitch

- The highness or lowness of a sound
- High sounds vibrate a higher frequency than lower sounds
- The pitch an octave above any other pitch vibrates at double the frequency

9

Interval

The distance between two pitches

10

Scale

The group of pitches/tones that makeup one octave

11

Melody

A succession of notes, varying in pitch, that have a recognizable shape

12

Phrase

What melodies are made up of (e.g. Twinkle Twinkle Little Star)

13

Temperament

The precise tuning of the pitches in a scale and the exact frequency each pitch vibrates at

14

Timbre

The distinctiveness of a particular voice or instrument, tone colour

15

How is timbre created?

The presence or lack of harmonics and overtones present in a sound

16

Dynamics

The loudness or softness of a piece of music (e.g. crescendo)

17

Musical texture

The perceived relationship of simultaneous musical sounds

18

Monophony

- A single melody, the simplest musical texture
- 1 person singing with accompaniment
- Many people performing the same melody

19

Homophony

- A main melody supported by other voices
- A pianist playing chords with one hand and the melody with the other

20

Polyphony

- Multiple independent, simultaneous melodies
- Common in Western classical music

21

Heterophony

- 2+ voices performing the same basic melody with minor ornamental variations
- Common in some forms of West Asian music

22

Strophic form

Repeated melodies sung with new words each time (AAAA)
- Common in Old British folk songs

23

Verse-chorus form

2 contrasting melodies
1) Verse is sung with new words each time
2) The chorus contains the same words each time (AB)

24

Through-composed form

Complex, does not repeat its entire melody
Common in Western classical music

25

Piece

any musical work

26

Song

A piece containing vocals

27

Voice

And sound-making thing

28

How do humans differ from animals? (3)

- People are aware of their own mortality
- We seek meaning
We have an imagination

29

What are the 5 characteristics of myth?

1) Rooted in the experience of death and fear of extinction
2) Inseparable from ritual
3) About the unknown
4) Puts us in the right spiritual or psychological posture for right action in this world or the next
5) Speaks of another plane that exists alongside our own world and supports it

30

What is the function/truth of myth

They are true because they are effective, forcing us to change our minds and hearts (instead of providing us with factual information)

31

What are the ages of myth? (5)

1) Hunter
2) Farmer
3) Early Civilizations
4) Axial/post-axial
5) Great Western transformation

32

What are the 5 ways Christianity historically categorized other faiths?

1) Created by evil forces
2) Corrupted, strayed from the "original truth" (assumption of monotheism)
3) Demonstrably inferior
4) Containing symbolic Christian truths
5) Expressing the spiritual capacity of all humans to come to some understanding of the divine

33

What is rationalism in terms of understanding religion? (3)

- Regards reason as man's highest faculty: "if you can't prove it, then I don't believe it"
- Rejecting supernatural explanations of religious history
- 17th C. "age of reason"

34

What is universalism in terms of understanding religion? (2)

- All regions are pointing to the same truth
- Share big concepts, details may differ

35

What is a hierophany?

- Any experience of the sacred or holy
- How we get outside of our daily existence

36

What is a shaman?

A practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with a spirit world

37

What are the cross-cultural criteria of a shaman?

1960s: doctor, psychiatrist, law enforcer, protector, creative artist
2005: be able to pull on the powers of nature and speak to the dead
Today: no clear-cut, agreed upon criteria

38

What is Shinto?

A traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently in order to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past

39

What does kami mean? How does it relate to animism?

God, deity, divinity, or spirit - animism believes that there is kami in everything.

40

What is Tsugaru Shamisen? (2)

Both the genre of Shamisen music from the Tsugaru peninsula and the instrument it is performed with

41

What is an itako?

- A blind medium
- Not by choice
- Receives training from older itakos
- Low ranking in society
- Speak to the dead
- Part of a guild

42

What is a gomiso?

- Choose to be mediums
- Training requires physical effort
- Low ranking in society
- Don't speak to the dead
- Work individually

43

What is Osore-zan ("Mount Fear")?

A summer festival is held in the area when itako gather. It is not clear when this began, but it is assumed to be around the time when the railroad from the bottom to the top of the peninsula opened in 1921. It is now a common place to find itako.

44

According to Judith Becker, what is trance?

A state of mind characterized by:
1) intense focus
2) loss of strong sense of self
3) access to knowledge and experiences not accessible in non-trance states

45

What are examples of types of trances? (6)

1) meditative
2) possession (itako)
3) shamanic (itako)
4) communal (concert)
5) aesthetic (art)
6) isolated moments of transcendence (in nature)

46

What is the Rangda/Barong ritual of Bali?

- Intends to restore the balance between the world of people and the world of spirits
- Traditionally in response to crop failure, pestilence, mental illness

47

Who are Rangda and Barong?

The evil witch and the good mythical beast

48

What is gamelan?

The traditional music of Indonesia, made up of mostly percussive instruments

49

What is emergent behaviour/connectionism?

The idea that massive groupings of neutrons (called “maps”) that exist in various parts of the brain are simultaneously stimulated to create any experience.

50

What is a physiological metonym?

A metonym: the whole is invoked by part (“Ottawa” stands in for “Canadian government”)
Physiological metonym: a piece of music invokes certain feelings that are “in no way internist to the piece of music” (like me and Blinded By the Light)

51

What are the noetics of trance?

It presents to the trancer a special type of knowledge, nearly always accompanied by a sense of absolute certainty concerning that knowledge.

52

What is rhythmic entertainment?

If different rhythmic firings of neurons activate different parts of the brain, maybe different musical rhythms activate different parts of the brain.

53

Who is Siddhartha Gautama?

- Buddha
- Lived a sheltered life until he was 29
- Attained enlightenment at 35

54

What are the Four Noble Truths?

1) All life is suffering (all life is impermanent)
2) Suffering is caused by desire (to keep things the way they are)
3) There is a way to end desire
4) It is the eight-fold path

55

Who is Bodhidharma?

A Buddhist monk who left India for China and founded Ch'an Buddhism

56

What is Ch'an Buddhism? (5)

- Taoist influence
- Emphasis on discipline
- Enlightenment is the goal
- Rejects the idea of Buddha as God
- Temples, scriptures, words, images are unimportant

57

What is Zen Buddhism? (5)

- Tries to get around reason to achieve enlightenment
- Through koans
- Adopted by upper-class medieval samurai
- Influential in art, literature and theatre of Japan
- Fuke Sect: Suizen - blowing meditation, komusō - baskets on head while playing

58

What is a koan?

Questions that don't have answers
e.g. what is the sound of one hand clapping?

59

What does Satori mean?

Enlightenment, or seeing one's true nature

60

Zen in the West (5)

- D.T. Suzuki: Essays in Zen Buddhism: First Series (1927)
- Alan Watts: The Way of Zen (1957)
- Hippies
- Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance
- Zen as a marketing term

61

What is Shakuhachi?

Flute instrument

62

What is Hōki?

A shakuhachi instrument, for meditation used by Suizen

63

What is Gakki?

A shakuhachi instrument, for music

64

What is Kata?

Form or shape, the artistic execution of the musician - What is imitated by the learner.

65

What does "process over product" mean?

- Self-development over mastery
- It is the journey, not the destination
- The experience is more important than what comes of it