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Flashcards in Midterm Quick Review Deck (11):
1

All cells are _______ by their descent from earlier cells.

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2

Why are cells so small?

- natural laws limit the size of cells
- at minimum a cell must be large enough to house the parts it needs to survive and reproduce
-the maximum size of a cell is limited by the amount of surface needed to obtain nutrients from the environment and dispose of waste

3

Every cell has...

A plasma membrane
- barrier that separates the internal environment from the external environment
- controls flow of materials in and out of cell (selectively permeable)
- integral component of waste disposal and secretory processes

4

Every cell has... (2)

Chromosomes - strand of DNA that carry genes

5

Every cell has... (3)

Ribosomes
- tiny structures that make proteins according to instructions from the genes

6

Every cell has... (4)

Cytoplasm
- the interior of the cell
- in eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm refers to the area between the nucleus and the plasma membrane

7

Every cell has... (4)

Cytoplasm
- the interior of the cell
- in eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm refers to the area between the nucleus and the plasma membrane

8

Prokaryotic

- they are the simple ones
- enclosed by a plasma membrane and usually encased in a rigid cell wall
- inside the cell the DNA is contained in a nucleoid region
- on the exterior surface there are processes called pili and flagella

9

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

Both have cell membranes, cytoplasm, chromosomes, and ribosomes.
Pro had nucleoid region and eu has a nucleus. Pro has few simple organelles and eu has a complex membrane bound structures.
And a size difference

10

Eukaryotic cells compartments

- increases efficiency
- Allows compatible chemical reactions to be separated
- keeps enzymes that cooperate close together
- higher local concentration of molecules

11

Animal and plant cell differences

Animals have lysosomes, centrioles, and flagella.
Plant cells have chloroplasts, rigid cell wall, and a central vacuole.