Midterm Vocab Flashcards Preview

Erin Murphy, Global per 8 > Midterm Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm Vocab Deck (41):
1

Monsoon

a seasonal prevailing wind in the region of South and Southeast Asia, blowing from the southwest between May and September and bringing rain (the wet monsoon ), or from the northeast between October and April (the dry monsoon )

2

Bubonic Plague

the most common form of plague in humans, characterized by fever, delirium, and the formation of buboes.

3

Hinduism

A diverse body of religion, philosophy, and cultural practice native to and predominant in India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils

4

Buddhism

The teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct, wisdom, and meditation releases one from desire, suffering, and rebirth.

5

Reincarnation

the rebirth of a soul in a new body

6

Moksha

release from the cycle of rebirth impelled by the law of karma.

7

Nirvana

(in Buddhism) a transcendent state in which there is neither suffering, desire, nor sense of self, and the subject is released from the effects of karma and the cycle of death and rebirth. It represents the final goal of Buddhism

8

Eightfold Path

the path to nirvana, comprising eight aspects in which an aspirant must become practiced: right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration.

9

Sanskirt

an ancient Indic language of India, in which the Hindu scriptures and classical Indian epic poems are written and from which many northern Indian languages are derived.

10

Caste System

a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity

11

Cultural Diffusion

spread of cultural

12

Judaism

the monotheistic religion of the Jews

13

Christianity

the religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, or its beliefs and practices.

14

Islam

the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.

15

Ten Commandments

Decalogue: the biblical commandments of Moses

16

Five Pillars

The Five Pillars of Islam are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life

17

Torah

(in Judaism) the law of God as revealed to Moses and recorded in the first five books of the Hebrew scriptures (the Pentateuch).

18

Animism

the attribution of a soul to plants, inanimate objects, and natural phenomena

19

Shintoism

Shinto: the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma; characterized by a veneration of nature spirits and of ancestors

20

Four Noble Truths

the four central beliefs containing the essence of Buddhist teaching

21

Polytheism

belief in more then one god

22

Monotheism

belief in one god

23

Code of Hammurabi

well-preserved Babylonian law code, dating back to about 1772 BC

24

Brahma

The creator god, conceived chiefly as a member of the triad including also Vishnu and Shiva

25

Dharma

social custom regarded as a religious and moral duty

26

Silk Road

an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean

27

Middle Kingdom

a period of Egyptian history extending from the late 11th to the 13th dynasty

28

Confucianism

the ethical system of Confucius, emphasizing moral order, the humanity and virtue of China's ancient rulers, and gentlemanly education

29

Pax Romana

Roman peace

30

Guilds

a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants, often having considerable power

31

Democracy

a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.

32

Hieroglyphics

system of writing, such as that of ancient Egypt, in which pictorial symbols are used to represent meaning or sounds or a combination of meaning and sound

33

Cuneiform

denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit, surviving mainly impressed on clay tablets.

34

Fertile Crescent

a geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates

35

Hagia Sophia

a 6th century masterpiece of Byzantine architecture in Istanbul

36

Justinian's Code

a compilation of Roman imperial law made by order of Justinian I, forming part of the Corpus Juris Civilis

37

Terrace Farming

In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming

38

Commercial Revolution

The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the 16th century until the early 18th century

39

Chivalry

the medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code

40

One Hundred years War

the series of wars fought intermittently between England and France from 1337-1453

41

Manorialism

an essential element of feudal society, was the organizing principle of rural economy that originated in the villa system of the Late Roman Empire