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Minerals Test Revision > Minerals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Minerals Deck (15)
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1

What are minerals?

What rocks are made of

2

What are the five criteria for a mineral?

Solid, inorganic, naturally occurring, fixed chemical formula, atoms in an orderly structure

3

What defines a non-mineral?

If one or more of the criteria for a mineral is not met

4

Can the same mineral have different colours?

Yes, there may just be impurities within the mineral

5

Can different minerals have the same colour?

Yes

6

How do geologists measure hardness?

Using the Mohs Hardness Scale

7

What is the range and rule for the Mohs Hardness Scale?

Range: 1-10
Rule: A harder mineral will scratch a softer mineral

8

What is the lustre of a mineral?

The appearance of reflected light from fresh mineral surfaces

9

What are the two categories that lustre fits into?

Metallic- Opaque and Non-Metallic- Transparent

10

What is the streak of a mineral?

The colour of a mineral when it is powdered

11

Is the streak of a mineral usually the same as its colour in its natural form?

No, it is often different

12

What is cleavage?

How a mineral breaks along lines of weakness, leaving flat surfaces

13

How do you judge cleavage?

Look for repeated flat planes on the surface of the sample

14

What is specific gravity?

A measure of the mass of a mineral compares to the mass of an equal volume of water

15

Are oils and gases minerals?

No, because they are the decay of living organisms and are not solid