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Flashcards in MIS - Exam 2 Deck (56):
1

Scope of Processes

1. Operational -
- Routine/Everyday, Commonplace
- Use TPS (Transaction Processing System)


2. Managerial -
- Concern with use of resources in pursuit of its objectives.
- Use MIS (Management Information System)


3. Strategic -
- Resolve issues with long-range impact on the organization.
- Use ESS (Executive Support System)

2

4 Characteristics of Process

1. Stability of Flow -
- Structured
- Dynamic

2. Scope of Process -
- Operational
- Managerial
- Strategic

3. Objectives of Process -
- Effectiveness
- Efficiency

4. Value Chain -
- See other slide for 5 Value Chain operations

3

Value Chain Activities

1. Inbound Logistics Processes
2. Operational Processes
3. Outbound Logistic Processes
4. Sales & Marketing Processes
5. Customer Service

Supporting-
6. Human Resources Processes
7. Technology Processes
8. Infrastructure Processes

4

5 Ways IS can be used to Improve Processes (ADCAP)

1. Improve Activity of a Process
2. Improve Data Flow among activities
3. Improve Control of Activities
4. Use Automation
5. Improve Procedures

5

Difference between Effectiveness and Efficiency

Effectiveness - achieve organizational strategy.

Efficiency - create more output with same input or same output with less input.

6

Business Process

A sequence of activities for accomplishing a function.

7

Activity -

A task within a business process.

8

Resource -

An item (people, computers, data, document collections) necessary to accomplish an activity.

9

Actor -

Resources that are either human or computer hardware.

10

Role -

A subset of activities in a business process that are performed by a particular actor.

11

2 Ways Management can improve Processes -

1. Process Objectives
- Classify objectives as effective or efficient to overcome ambiguity.
- Make unstated objectives explicit.
- Ensure objective are appropriate for the Strategy.


2. Process Measures -
- Reasonable - Valid and compelling
- Accurate - Exact and Precise
- Consistent - Reliable

12

6 Mgt Process Principles to Improve Processes (AUFBSO)

1. Improve Activity
2. Remove unproductive resources
3. Improve feedback
4. Remove bottlenecks
5. Redesign the Structure
6. Outsource the Activity

13

Information Silo

The data needed for a process activity is unavailable because it is stored in an isolated, separated information system.

14

What is ERP?

Enterprise Resource Planning- A suite of software, a database, and inherent processes for consolidating business operations into a single, consistent, information system.

15

What is EAI?

Enterprise Application Integration - Software that enables information silos to communicate with each other and share data.

16

5 Core Processes/Modules of an ERP?

1. Supply Chain Management (SCM)
2. Manufacturing
3. Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
4. HR Management
5. Accounting

Also
Operations/Logistics
Sales/Marketing

17

3 Characteristics of an ERP -

1. Create and use a single database consolidating the data.
2. Provide industry leading integrated processes which increase speed & communication.
3. Centralize activities increasing efficiencies

18

What is MRP and MRPII

Material Requirements Planning - used to manage inventory, production, and labor. Bill of materials.

MRPII - Added Financial tracking and; equipment/facility scheduling capabilities.

19

3 Types of Data
(Think T-Mobile)

1. Transactional Data - Data related to events or transactions (qty, purchases, enrollment). 1 time occurrence.

2. Master Data (Reference Data) - Data used within the organization that doesn’t change with each transaction. Has persistence /reusable. Customer, vendor, employee.

3. Organizational Data - Data about the organization. Physical locations, names of Financial accounts, etc.

20

3 Types of People Involved in an ERP

1. Users
2. IT (System) Analyst
3. Consultant

21

Access Control

Specified limits on who can interact with an IS resource.

22

5 Steps to Implementing an ERP-

1. Re-examine Strategy
2. Performs gap analysis.
3. Develops Processes.
4 . Configure ERP software
5. Install - Write Procedures, testing , and training


1. Determine industry structure using porters tools.
2. What ERP System supports this strategy?
3. How does the ERP integrate with the supply chain?
4. Gap Analysis (expectations vs abilities)
5. Define objectives and measures.
6. Select Processes from the ERP vendor portfolio that aligns with your strategy/objectives.
7. Write procedures to use ERP to achieve/execute these processes.
8. Verify the ERP addresses and resolves issues and can achieve the objectives.

23

5 Benefits of an ERP -

1. Real-time data sharing
2. Implementation of integrated industry best practices.
3. More data = dashboards = better management oversight
4. No information silos
5. Better supply chain integration = reduced costs and increased efficiencies

24

ERP Implementation Challenges (SGCDC)

1. ERP Vendor selection
2. Gap analysis
3. Configuration
4. Data Issues
5. Cutover pressure - Old to New System

25

People Challenges

Management
- Premature
- Oversells
- Fails to anticipate cultural resistance

Team -
- Collaboration breaks down

Individual-
- Pain with no gain

26

Culture

The day to day work habits and practices that workers take for granted.

27

ERP Upgrade Challenge-(RJC-LTS)

1. Surprise and resistance
2. Justification
3. Version lock from customization
4. No long-term upgrade strategy

28

ABAP

SAPs application language

29

SAP Modules

Quality management
Financial accounting
Plant maintenance
Human Resources
Project Systems
Production planning
Controlling
Sales & Distribution
Materials Management
Business intelligence

30

Procurement

The process of obtaining goods and services such as raw materials parts, and services.

31

3 Procurement Process Activities

1. Order
2. Receive
3. Pay

32

3 Sales Process Activities

1. Sell
2. Ship
3. Payment

33

SAP

A collection of interconnected & interdependent modules.

34

Module

A distinct and logical grouping of processes.

35

Purchase Order

A written document requesting delivery of a specified quantity of a product or service in return for payment.

36

Types of Inventory

Raw Materials
Finished Goods

37

3 Way Match

A match between the invoice, P.O., and goods receipt.

38

SRM

Supplier Relationship Management - automates, simplifies, and accelerates a variety of supply chain processes by reducing procurement costs, build supplier relationships, better supplier options, and improved time to market.

39

Returns Mgt Process

Manages returns of faulty products for businesses.

40

SCM

Supply Chain Management- the design, planning, execution, and integration of all supply chain processes by using a collection of tools, techniques and management activities to help business develop integrated supply chains that support organizational strategy.

Share real-time data
Improve integration

41

Bullwhip Effect

When companies order more supplies than are needed due to a sudden change in demand.

42

Process Integration / Synergy

Occurs when processes are mutually supportive thus fulfilling an objective of other processes.

43

Sales

An exchange of goods or services for money.

44

3 Functions of CRM

1. Marketing
2. Sales
3. Customer service

45

2 Types of CRM

1. Operational
2. Analytical

46

CRM

Customer Relationship Management - The administration of customer facing processes and managing all the interactions with customers.

47

Posting

When legal ownership of the material has changed.

48

Ecommerce

A multi firm process of buying and selling goods and services using internet technology.

49

Difference between Merchant and Non-Merchant Companies

Merchant companies own the goods they sell.



Non-Merchant companies do not own/possess the items they sell.
- Auctions
- Clearinghouses
- Electronic Exchanges

50

Disintermediation

The elimination of middle layers of distributors and suppliers. Cutting out the middle man.

51

3 Ways Ecommerce Improve Market Efficiency

1. Disintermediation
2. Data Flow - between buyers and sellers.
3. Software - sharing of marketing data

52

3 Challenges of Improving a Group of Processes

1. People are distracted from their most important process.
2. Process change constantly.
3. People must know objectives of many processes

53

CRM vs SCM Processes

CRM
- Sales
- Service
- Promotion

SCM
- Procurement
- Demand Management
- Returns Mgt

54

Bottleneck

Occurs when a limited resource greatly reduces the output of an integrated series of activities or processes.

55

Internal Control

Systematically limiting the actions and behaviors of employees, processes, and systems within the organization to safeguard assets and achieve objectives.

56

Procurement Objectives

Save time
Save money
Find reliable high quality suppliers
Relationship maintenance
Supporting other processes (sales & operations)
Efficiency