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Flashcards in Miscellaneous Deck (14)
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1
Q

What volume of blood drained immediately via a chest drain in a haemothorax indicates surgical exploraiton?

A

> 1500ml

2
Q

A Mediterranean man presents with oral ulcers, genital ulcers and anterior uveitis. What is the likely diagnosis?

A

Behcet’s disease

Classical triad

3
Q

Definition of neutropenic sepsis?

A

PMN count of 38C or another clinical sign of sepsis.

4
Q

Initial treatment of neutropenic sepsis

A

Urgent empirical antibiotics - Tazocin

5
Q

4 main clinical features of Refsum’s disease

A

Retinitis Pigmentosa
Cerebellar ataxia
Peripheral Neuropathy
Raised CSF protein with no raised cell count

6
Q

Which examination should be avoided in a patient with AML who is neutropenic and anaemic?

A

DRE

Rectal exams should be avoided in patients who are neutropenic as trauma to the ano-rectum provides an easy access route for GI organisms to enter the bloodstream.

7
Q

Causes of Horner syndrome

A

Central

  • Stroke: Wallenberg
  • MS
  • Syringomyelia

Pre-ganglionic

  • Tumour (Pancoast)
  • Trauma: CVA insertion, carotid endarcterectomy
  • Thyroidectomy

Post-ganglionic

  • Cavernous sinus thrombosis
  • Carotid artery aneurysm
  • Carotid dissection
8
Q

Medical management options for Primary chronic open angle glaucoma?

A

B-blockers

  • reduced aqueous production
  • CI in asthmatics

Prostaglandin analogues (latanoprost)

  • increase uveoscleral outflow
  • brown pigmentation of eye

a-blockers (brimonidine)

  • reduce production and increase outflow
  • avoid if MAOi or TCA

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

Miotics: Pilocarpine
- pupil constriction, headache, diplopia

9
Q

Types of cataract

A

Nuclear sclerotis
Posterior subcapsular
Cortical

10
Q

Most common ocular manifestation of RA?

A

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca

11
Q

Distinguishing between scleritis and episcleritis

A

Scleritis is painful

Episcleritis is not.

12
Q

Contents of the Carpal Tunnel

A
10 items:
Median Nerve
4x tendons of FDP
4x tendons of FDS
1x tendon of Flexos pollicis longus
13
Q

Which nerves are affected in Erb’s palsy?

A

Disruption of C5/6 nerve root → suprascapular, musculo-cutaneous and axillary nerves

Waiter’s tip position: paralysis of abductors + external rotators. Biceps and supinators

Loss of sensation in C5/6

14
Q

Causes of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

A

Occupational
- typing

Endocrine

  • obesity
  • DM
  • acromegaly
  • hypothyroid

Hormonal
- pregnancy, OCP, menopause

Rheumatological
- RA, gout

Granulomatous
- TB, sarcoid,

Neoplastic
- myeloma

Renal
- fluid overload, steal syndrome, B2 amyloidosis