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Hazards - Geography - A-Level > Mitigation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mitigation Deck (23):
1

Name 8 ways of mitigation.

Hazard - resistant structures.
Education.
Fire prevention
Emergency services.
Land use planning.
Insurance.
Aid.
Tsuanmi protection..

2

HAZARD RESISTANT STRUCTURES
What are buildings designed to be?

Aseismic - earthquake resistant.

3

HAZARD RESISTANT STRUCTURES
Name 3 ways in which this can be achieved?

Putting large concrete weight on top of buildings.
Large rubber shock absorbents in foundations.
Adding cross-bracing to structure.

4

HAZARD RESISTANT STRUCTURES
By putting large concrete weight on top of buildings, what will happen?

With aid from a computer programme, in the opposite direction to the force of the earthquake will counteract stress.

5

HAZARD RESISTANT STRUCTURES
By adding cross-bracing to structure, what will this do?

Hold together better when it shakes.

6

EDUCATION.
Why is education so important?

Because in some countries its the main way loss of life can be minimised.

7

EDUCATION.
How are people educated on mitigating impacts of hazards?

Instructions issued by authorities in how to prepare for such events by securing homes, appliances and heavy furniture, and assembling earthquake kits.
Children have earthquake drills at school as well as in factories/offices.
eg nepal

8

FIRE PREPARATION.
What is an effective way to prevent fires?

'Smart meters' which have been developed that cut off gas if an earthquake of sufficient magnitude occurs.

9

FIRE PREPARATION.
What happens in Tokyo, that prevents risk of fires?

The gas company has a network that transmits seismic information to a computer which them informs employees where to switch off pipelines.

10

EMERGENCY SERVICES.
Why do these services need organisation and planning?

As people need to be trained well as it could take several time for aid to arrive - LIC.
Heavy lifting gear is available - dangerous if misused.

11

EMERGENCY SERVICES.
What is preparation in California like?

Involves the establishment of computer programs that will identify which areas the emergency services should be sent to first.

12

LAND USE PLANNING.
What is it important to have regarding the land?

Open space away from fires and aftershock damage.

13

LAND USE PLANNING.
What building should be placed at low risk?

Schools and hospitals.

14

LAND USE PLANNING.
Give an example of where there is tight building regulations?

Japan.
eg Tokyo no buildings collapsed during earthquake.

15

INSURANCE.
What is advised to do in Richter countries?

Take out insurance to cover their losses, the only problems for individuals is that its very expensive.

16

INSURANCE.
Give a place which used insurance?

Kobe.
Only 7% of people were covered by insurance.

17

AID.
What is aid like in poor countries?

Takes a couple of days for aid to arrive.
People provide medical services, tents, water purification, search&rescue, equipment.

18

AID.
Give an example of a LIC which received aid from a HIC?

Kobe received aid from UK as its an oversea territory.
£70 million.

19

TSUNAMI PROTECTION.
What is problem with tsunami protection?

It can't be predicted.

20

TSUNAMI PROTECTION.
Name a way which helps predict when a tsunami will occur?

Automated systems installed to give warnings, which uses bottom pressure sensors attached to buoys which constantly measure pressure of overlying water column.

21

TSUNAMI PROTECTION.
Name a place where a moinitoring system is based?

Hawaii.
Its a pacific warning monitoring earthquake activity within Pacific edge.

22

TSUNAMI PROTECTION.
Name a failed way of protection?

Sea walls up to 12m high which proved ineffective.

23

TSUNAMI PROTECTION.
Name a successful way of protection?

Fudai's sea wall in north east coast of Japan.