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Flashcards in Mixed Institutions Deck (48):
1

Miller v. Johnson

Along with Shaw v. Reno decided race cannot be the predominant factor in drawing district lines

2

U.S Term Limits v. Thornton

States cannot set term limits on members of congress

3

Bush v. Gore

Florida's recount in the 2000 election was ruled to be a violation of the 14th amendments equal protection clause

4

Shelby county v. Holder

Invalidated part of the voting rights act of 65 clearing the way for the expansion of voter id laws

5

Public education role of congress

Committee hearings and floor debates educate the public

6

Sponser

The congress member who introduces the bill

7

Poison pill amendments

Killer amendments
rules committee can make it easy to add these for opponents

8

Remember earmarks

Appear in appropriations and authorizations bills

9

INS v. Chadha

Declared unconstitutional

Congress wrote legislation giving president broad powers but reserved itself the right to void presidential actions by a vote of one or both houses

10

Discharge petition

Parliamentary mechanism to force a bill out of committee for a floor vote

11

Pendleton Act

Eliminated the spoils system of patronage in selection for government jobs and set up exam based merit system
Regulation of gov.

12

Sherman anti-trust act

Provided congress with authority to regulate and break up monopolies or trusts in the US
Is abused to brake up labor unions

13

Hatch act

Permitted gov. employees to vote in gov. Elections but forbade participation in partisan politics

14

Freedom of information act

Declassified gov. documents for public use

15

Air quality act

The beginning of a series of acts to regulate impacts on the environment

16

Espionage act, sedation act

Curtailed the civil liberties of Americans during wartime and increased fed. power in controlling public activity
Sedation act was repealed by congress in 1921

17

Immigration act

Limited number of immigrants let into the United States quotas for entry

18

Age discrimination in employment act

Banned age discrimination in jobs unless age was related to performance

19

Title IX Education Act

Prohibited gender discrimination in federally funded education programs

20

Patriot Act

Response to 9 11
Authority governments to convict terrorists

21

Personal Responsibility and work opportunity reconciliation act

Increase personal responsibility in welfare recipients and shifted welfare responsibilities to state governments

22

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Gave president broad powers to commit unlimited troops for unlimited time in Vietnam
Pre War Powers Resolution

23

Domestic policy council

Assists president in domestic policy

24

US trade representative

Negotiating complex trade and tariff agreements on behalf of president with White House guidance

25

Department of homeland security

Makes 15 cabinet departments
Counters terrorism
Protects boarders
Analyze intelligence
Detect weapons
Support local agencies like police and fire departments

26

Principles of the judicial system

Equal justice under the law- all treated as equals
Due process of law
Adversarial system- two sides must be represented
Presumption of justice- innocent until proven guilty

27

Types of due process

Substantive- whether laws are unfair

Procedural- whether laws are fairly applied

28

Grand jury

24 to 48 jurors that use evidence from prosecutor to decide if trial should commence

29

Who is the prosecutor in criminal trials
Goal of prosecutor

The government at some level
Guilt beyond reasonable doubt

30

Petit juries

12 jurors decide in criminal cases
The verdict

31

Civil law cases

Only gov if gov is a plaintiff or defendant
If a judge or jury thinks the case as merit it will continue
Settlement to avoid trial
Show preponderance of evidence favors there side
Fewer jurors

32

Equity

Loser forced to stop doing something

33

Smith v. Allwright

The denying of African Americans the rights to vote in a primary election was found to be a violation of the 15th amendment

34

Fletcher v. Peck

First case in which the court overturned a state law unconstitutional grounds Fletcher established the courts right to apply judicial review to state laws previously judicial review had been applied only to federal law

35

Timing of Supreme Court cases

From October to April
Hears oral arguments 30 min each for both sides

Federal gov. Will take one side and solicitor general will argue on behalf of gov for a portion of 30 min on supporting side

36

Joint chiefs of staff

The five Chiefs of the military services and their chairman who are responsible for carrying out defense policy and report directly to both the secretary of defense from the department of defense and the president

37

Executive departments in the cabinet

Department of
State
Treasury
Defense
Justice (attorney general and solicitor general)
Interior
Agriculture
Commerce
Labor
Health and human services
Housing and urban development
Transportation
Energy
Education
Veterans affairs
Homeland security

38

Organization of the departments

Secretary with president appointment and senate approval
Undersecretary (not confirmed by senate)
Senior executive service some appointees

39

Gov entities not within the 15 cabinets

Independent agencies
Independent regulatory commissions/ regulatory agencies (FCC, OSHA, SEC, FTC, and Federal Reserve Board)

40

Quasi-legislative agencies

Independent agencies who are responsible for filling in gaps in legislation and writing rules

41

Quasi-judicial agencies

Independent agencies responsible for rule enforcement and punishing violators

42

The nuclear regulatory commission

Controls how electric power companies design build and operate nuclear reactors
regulatory

43

The food and drug administation

Responsible for ensuring the health of the American people by inspecting food supply for contaminants and spoilage responsible for regulating sale of over-the-counter drugs and patent medicines
Regulatory agency

44

Federal energy regulatory commission

Is responsible for preventing price-fixing and price manipulation in electric utilities, interstate oil and gas pipelines, and natural gas suppliers
Regulatory agency

45

Equal employment opportunities commission

EEOC
created by civil rights act
Enforces anti discrimination laws
Americans with disabilities act
Affirmative action (first promoted then discouraged)

46

Boards of commissioners

Run regulatory agencies
Appointed and confirmed by senate

47

Alliance network or issue network

Members of Congress and bureaucrats who form a close working relationship for more complicated than a simple three-part iron triangle
When issues affect many groups

48

Quasi-legislative function

Regulatory agency writes and publishes the rules