What is fractional distillation?
A method for separating a liquid from a mixture of two or more liquids
How does fractional distillation work?
The liquids in the mixture have different boiling points and when heated one liquid evaporates before the other.
What is simple distillation?
A method for separating the solvent from a solution
How does simple distillation work?
This method works because water has a much lower boiling point than salt. When heated the water evaporates and is then cooled and condensed into a separate container and the salt does not evaporate.
What is filtration?
A mixture of water and an insoluble substance like sand can be separatedby filtering.
How does filtration work?
Water and a particles are put into filter paper so the water can pass through the paper but not the particles in it.
How does evaporation work?
A dissolved solution can be boiled and the water will evaporate until it is all gone. The undissolved particles would be left behind.
What is the chromatography process?
This is how to separate dissolved substances from one another and is often used when the substance is coloured.
A pure substance will only produce one spot on the chromatogram during paper chromatography. This is a way to see if the substances are the same.
How does chromatography work?
A pencil line is drawn and spots of ink or plant dye are on it with water underneath. The paper then goes into the water and travels up through the paper taking the coloured substance with it.
When the solvent continues to travel up the paper the different coloured substances spread apart.
How does crystallisation work?
The solvent is warmed in an open container allowing it to evaporate leaving a saturated solution. It has a much solid dissolved in it as it can possibly contain is called a saturated solution. This then is cooled and the solid will come out of the solution and crystals will start to grow.