Flashcards in MOD 14 WEIGHT AND BALANCE Deck (20)
Aircraft performance how is affected by weight:
More weight = longer take-off
More weight = lower climb rate
More weight = slower cruise
More weight = longer landing
More weight = More stress and strain on aircraft!
Large aircraft must be reweighed every _____ years
5 years -CARS 625 Appendix C
when Small aircraft are re-weighed ?
only if it affects weight and Centre of Gravity position
Who is responsible for the accuracy of the aircraft’s weight and balance?
“the air operator will establish and be responsible for the accuracy of the aeroplane basic empty weight and centre of gravity…”
what is Basic empty weight
Weight of aircraft with optional or special equipment
Full operating fluids
what is Max. Take off Weight
Maximum approved weight for the start of the takeoff roll.
what is Max. Landing Weight
Maximum allowable weight at which an aircraft can be landed.
what is Useful load
Difference between Max. take off weight and basic empty weight
what is Equipment List
A list of equipment that does not form part of the aircraft type design
When is a weight and balance amendment required?
As per CARS 571 Appendix C “ following a modification or a major repair that involves a change to the empty weight or centre of gravity of an aircraft…”
what is Fulcrum or datum
-Vertical plane from which all horizontal measurement are taken with the aircraft in a level flight attitude.
-Sits perpendicular to the longitudinal axis
-Location varies with aircraft
-Forward of datum is regarded as a negative number
Datum information can be located in the
-AMM (Aircraft maintenance Manual)
-POH (Pilot’s operating handbook)
-Type Certificate Data Sheet
what is Centre of Gravity
-Point along an aircraft’s longitudinal axis which the weight is considered to be concentrated
-Nose-heavy and tail-heavy moments are exactly equal in magnitude
Centre of Gravity – Out of Limits what happens when CG is too far forward ?
-Longer takeoff distance
-Higher stalling speeds
-Extreme nose heavy the elevator or Stabilator will be insufficient to lift the nose.
Centre of Gravity – Out of Limits what happens when CG is too far Aft ?
-Unstable in pitch
-Elevator or Stabilator becomes ineffective in a stall or spin recovery
what is moment
Product of weight multiplied by its arm
what is Arm
-Horizontal distance from the datum
-The number will be negative forward of the datum and negative aft of the datum
Centre of Gravity formula
CG = Total moment
what happens with an overloaded aircraft
-aircraft must accelerate to a higher speed to generate sufficient lift
-needs more run way to attain higher speed
-reduces climb performance
-its service ceilings are decrease
-aircraft become unstable and difficult to fly