Module 10: The Central and Peripheral Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology > Module 10: The Central and Peripheral Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 10: The Central and Peripheral Nervous System Deck (48):
1

4 regions of the brain

Cerebrum
Diencephalon
Brain stem
Cerebellum

2

Cerebrum

Largest part
Consciousness
Mostly white matter
Grey matter (basal ganglia) helps regulate body movement, posture, balance, and facial expression

3

Cerebral cortex

Outer layer of the cerebrum
Grey in color
Contains cell bodies and unmyelinated short processes
Center for sensory and motor functions

4

Left hemisphere

Reasoning and analytical side
Language and mathematical abilities

5

Right hemisphere

Motor skills, intuition, emotion, art, music appreciation

6

Frontal lobe

Movements of voluntary skeletal muscles
Higher intellectual processes such as concentration, planning, and problem solving

7

Parietal lobe

Sensations of temperature, touch, pressure, and pain
Understanding speech and using words

8

Temporal lobe

Hearing and smelling
Memory of scenes and music

9

Three layers of meninges

Dura mater - most superficial
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater - deepest

10

Dura mater

Most superficial meningeal layer
Dense, irregular connective tissue
Thick, strong

11

Arachnoid mater

Middle meningeal layer
Thin, avascular
Cells and thin, loose collagen and elastic fibers

12

Pia mater

Innermost menix
Thin, transparent connective tissue
Adheres to surface of spinal cord and brain
Vascular

13

Ventricles

Fluid-filled cavities within the brain
2 lateral ventricles, third ventricle, fourth ventricle

14

Anterior median fissure

Wide groove on the anterior side of the spinal cord
Divides left and right sides

15

Posterior median sulcus

Narrow furrow on posterior side of spinal cord
Divides left and right sides

16

Brain stem components

Medulla oblongata
Pons
Midbrain

17

Diencephalon components

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Epithalamus

18

Extensions of dura mater that separate parts of the brain

Falx cerebri
Falx cerebelli
Tentorium cerebelli

19

Falx cerebri

Separates hemispheres of the cerebrum

20

Falx cerebelli

Separates hemispheres of the cerebellum

21

Tentorium cerebelli

Separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum

22

CSF formation

Forms within the ventricles of the brain via the choroid plexuses
Released by ependymal cells

23

How CSF returns to bloodstream

Flows into the arachnoid villi which protrude into the dural
sinuses
Diffuses across the membranes of the villi into the dural sinuses where it mixes with venous blood
Blood in the sinuses drains the CSF away from the brain into veins

24

Nociceptors

Pain

25

Epineurium

Sheath of connective tissue that surrounds a nerve
Portions of the epineurium project inward and divide the nerve into compartments that contain a bundle of nerve fibres

26

Fasciculus

Bundle of nerve fibers

27

Perineurium

Connective tissue that covers each fasciculus

28

Endoneurium

Surrounds each individual nerve fibre

29

Trochlear nerve

Turns eye downward and laterally

30

Trigeminal nerve

Chewing
Face and mouth – touch/pain

31

Abducens nerve

Turns eye laterally

32

Glossopharyngeal nerve

Taste
Blood pressure

33

Vagus nerve

Has numerous branches that supply organs in the thorax and abdomen
Senses aortic blood pressure
Slows heart rate
Stimulates digestive organs
Taste

34

Accessory nerve

Controls swallowing
Controls trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles

35

Hypoglossal nerve

Tongue muscle movement

36

Somatic nervous system (SNS)

Reactions to outside stimuli

37

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

Proper functioning of the internal organs
Made up of motor neurons that stimulate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
Operates automatically and unconsciously

38

Two divisions of the ANS

Sympathetic nervous system
Parasympathetic nervous system

39

Sympathetic nervous system

Most active in stressful situations
“Fight or flight” system

40

Parasympathetic nervous system

Most active in non stressful situations
“Feed and breed” system and the “rest and digest” system
Helps to regulate functions of the digestive and reproductive systems

41

Medulla oblongata

Most inferior part of the brain stem
Contains sensory and motor tracts

42

Pons

Part of the brain stem that forms the bridge between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain
Relays nerve impulses from motor areas or cerebral cortex to cerebellum
Anterior to the cerebellum

43

Midbrain

Part of the brain between the pons and the diencephalon
Coordinates movements of the head, eyes, and trunk in response to auditory and visual stimuli

44

Thalamus

Main relay center for sensory impulses ascending to the cerebral cortex

45

Pineal gland

Secretes melatonin

46

Basal nuclei

Help initiate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements, regulate muscle tone

47

Hypothalamus

Controls and integrates activities of ANS

48

Epithalamus

Consists of pineal gland and habenular nuclei