Flashcards in Module 2- chapter 3 carbohydrates Deck (98)
What is the general formula of carbohydrates?
What are carbohydrates in general also known as?
What are the three types of carbohydrates?
What are monosaccharides?
small, simple sugars which will reduce
What are disaccharides?
Large sugars formed from two monosaccharides
what are polysaccharides?
long chain carbohydrates. a type of polymer made up of monosaccharides as monomers
What are some examples of monosaccharides?
glucose, fructose, ribose
what are some examples of disaccharides?
lactose, sucrose, maltose
what are some examples of polysaccharides?
glycogen, cellulose, starch
What is the formula of glucose?
What type of monosaccharide is glucose due to its number of carbons?
hexose monosaccharide (6 carbons)
What is a key property of glucose? Why is this useful?
Highly soluble. Useful because glucose is a major energy source for most cells and is the main form in which carbohydrates are transported around the body of animals.
What makes glucose highly soluble?
- The oxygen in the water molecules as a partial negative charge whilst the hydrogens in the water molecules have a partial positive charge, therefore the overall partial charge of the water is positive.
- The OH groups on the glucose have a partial negative charge so the water and hydroxyl groups bond by dipole bonding.
- The dipole dipole attraction of the water with the glucose hydroxyl groups is stronger than the attraction of the OH group to the carbon chain of glucose.
What are the three ways of drawing the structure of glucose?
Straight chain, ring (most commonly used), simplified ring
What are the two structural variations of the glucose molecule?
Alpha and beta glucose
What can structural variations of molecules be referred to as?
How are alpha and beta glucose different?
Alpha glucose has the hydroxyl group below carbon 1. Beta glucose has the hydroxyl group above carbon 1.
In molecular structure diagrams, how are the carbons numbered?
clockwise from the oxygen atom within the ring
What are condensation reactions?
\when two hydroxyl groups react to bond the two molecules and produce a water molecule. A glycosidic bond forms between the two molecules and oxygen is left behind where the two hydroxyl groups were.
What is a glycosidic bond?
a type of covalent bond formed in condensation reactions between monosaccharides
What do condensation reactions form?
Disaccharides and polysaccharides when two or more monosaccharides are bonded.
How is maltose formed?
by two alpha glucose molecules joined by an alpha 1,4 glycosidic bond.
what type of carbohydrate is maltose?
what type of carbohydrate is fructose?
what type of carbohydrate is galactose?
How is sucrose formed?
by glucose and fructose, joined by an alpha 1,4 glycosidic bond
what type of carbohydrate is sucrose?
how is lactose formed?
by galactose and glucose, joined by a beta 1,4 glycosidic bond
what type of carbohydrate is lactose?