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Flashcards in Module 4 Deck (50):
1

What is a hydrocarbon?

A compound containing only carbon and hydrogen

2

What type of bonds does an unsaturated hydrocarbon have?

Carbon-carbon multiple bonds

3

What type of hydrocarbon has single bonds only?

Saturated hydrocarbons

Alkanes

4

What is a homologous series?

A family of compounds with similar chemical properties whose successive members differ by the addition of a -CH2- group

5

What is a functional group?

The part of an organic molecule that is largely responsible for the molecules chemical properties

6

What is an aliphatic hydrocarbon?

Carbon atoms joined together in unbranched or branched chains

7

What is an alicyclic hydrocarbon?

Carbon atoms are joined together in a ring

8

What is an aromatic hydrocarbon?

Some or all of the carbon atoms are found in a benzene ring

9

What is an alkyne?

Contains at least one triple carbon-carbon bond

10

What are the stems for the number of carbon atoms?

Meth
Eth
Prop
But
Pent
Hex
Hept
Oct
Non
Dec

11

What prefix do you use for a cyclic alkane?

Cyclo-

12

What is the molecular formula?

Shows the number and type of atoms of each element present in a molecule

13

What is the general formula?

The simplest algebraic formula for any member of a homologous series

eg. Alkane- CnH2n+2

14

What is the displayed formula?

Shows the relative positioning of all the molecules in a molecule and the bonds between them

H H H
| | |
H-C-C-C-H
| | |
H H H

15

What is the structural formula?

Uses the smallest amount of detail to show the arrangement of atoms in a molecule


CH3CH2CH2CH3

16

What is a structural isomer?

Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae

17

What is homolytic fission?

Each of the bonded atoms takes one of the shared pair of electrons from the bond

Each atoms now has a single unpaired electron and is now a radical

18

What type of atom has one unpaired electron?

A radical

19

What is heterolytic fission?

One of the bonded atoms takes both of the electrons from the bond

The electrons become positive and negative ions

20

What do the curly arrows in a reaction mechanism show?

The movement of electron pairs when bonds are being broken or made

21

What do the curly arrows, with one head, in a reaction mechanism show?

Th movement of a single, unpaired electron

22

In what type of reaction do two reactants join together to form one product?

Addition reaction

23

What happens in a substitution reaction?

An atom or group of atoms is replaced by a different atom or group of atoms

24

What type of reaction involves the removal of a small molecule for. A larger molecule?

Elimination reaction

One reactant forms two products

25

What is the functional group for an aldehyde?

-CHO



-C=O
|
H

26

What is the functional group of a ketone?

-C(CO)C-



C-C-C
||
O

27

What is the functional group of a carboxylic acid?

-COOH



—C=O
|
OH

28

What is the suffix for a ketone?

-one

29

What type of compound has a suffix of -al

Aldehyde

30

What is the covalent bond in an alkane called and how is it formed?

Sigma bond

Formed by the overlap of 2 s-orbitals. One from each bonding atom, each containing one electron so that two electrons are shared

31

What is the shape around each carbon atom in an alkane?

Tetrahedral
109.5°

32

What happens to the boiling point when the chain length of an alkane is increased?

Increases

The molecules have a larger surface area so more surface contact is possible between molecules. The London forces will be greater and so more energy is required to overcome the forces

33

What happens to the boiling point when a molecule is more branched?

Lower boiling points

There are fewer points of contact and so fewer London forces

34

Are C-C bonds polar or non polar?

Non-polar

The atoms are the same

35

Are C-H bonds polar or non polar?

Non polar

The electronegativity or carbon and hydrogen are very similar

36

In the presence of what do alkanes react with halogens?

Sunlight, the UV radiation provides the initial energy for the reaction to take place

37

What are the three stages of radical substitution?

Initiation, propagation, and termination

38

What happens in the initiation stage of of radical substitution?

The reaction is started when one covalent bond in a molecule is broken by homolytic fission.
Each atom takes one electron from the pair forming two highly reactive radicals.

39

What is the energy provided for the bond fission in the initiation stage?

UV radiation

40

What type of reaction occurs during the propagation step of a radical substitution reaction?

A chain reaction, through two steps

41

What happens in the termination stage of radical substitution?

Two radicals collide, forming a molecule with all electrons paired

42

What type of hydrocarbon are alkenes?

Unsaturated

43

What is the general formula of an alkene?

CnH2n

44

Where does the electron come from to form pi-bonds in alkenes?

One unbonded electron is left on each carbon in a p-orbital

45

Where is pi-electron density concentrated?

Above and below the line joining the nuclei of the bonding atoms

46

What is the shape and bond angle around a carbon atom in a double bond?

Trigonal planar
120°

47

Why does stereoisomerism occur around double bonds?

Rotation about the double bond is restricted and the groups attached to each carbon atom are therefore fixed relative to each other

48

What two conditions must a molecule satisfy for it to have E/Z isomerism

A carbon carbon double bond

Different atoms attached to each carbon atom of the double bond

49

What is the additional condition, other than those for E/Z isomerism, for a molecule to have cis-trans isomerism?

One of the attached groups on each carbon on the double bond must be hydrogen

50

On what side are the hydrogens in a cis-isomer?

The same side