Flashcards in Module 4 Deck (50):
What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
What type of bonds does an unsaturated hydrocarbon have?
Carbon-carbon multiple bonds
What type of hydrocarbon has single bonds only?
What is a homologous series?
A family of compounds with similar chemical properties whose successive members differ by the addition of a -CH2- group
What is a functional group?
The part of an organic molecule that is largely responsible for the molecules chemical properties
What is an aliphatic hydrocarbon?
Carbon atoms joined together in unbranched or branched chains
What is an alicyclic hydrocarbon?
Carbon atoms are joined together in a ring
What is an aromatic hydrocarbon?
Some or all of the carbon atoms are found in a benzene ring
What is an alkyne?
Contains at least one triple carbon-carbon bond
What are the stems for the number of carbon atoms?
What prefix do you use for a cyclic alkane?
What is the molecular formula?
Shows the number and type of atoms of each element present in a molecule
What is the general formula?
The simplest algebraic formula for any member of a homologous series
eg. Alkane- CnH2n+2
What is the displayed formula?
Shows the relative positioning of all the molecules in a molecule and the bonds between them
H H H
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H H H
What is the structural formula?
Uses the smallest amount of detail to show the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
What is a structural isomer?
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae
What is homolytic fission?
Each of the bonded atoms takes one of the shared pair of electrons from the bond
Each atoms now has a single unpaired electron and is now a radical
What type of atom has one unpaired electron?
What is heterolytic fission?
One of the bonded atoms takes both of the electrons from the bond
The electrons become positive and negative ions
What do the curly arrows in a reaction mechanism show?
The movement of electron pairs when bonds are being broken or made
What do the curly arrows, with one head, in a reaction mechanism show?
Th movement of a single, unpaired electron
In what type of reaction do two reactants join together to form one product?
What happens in a substitution reaction?
An atom or group of atoms is replaced by a different atom or group of atoms
What type of reaction involves the removal of a small molecule for. A larger molecule?
One reactant forms two products
What is the functional group for an aldehyde?
What is the functional group of a ketone?
What is the functional group of a carboxylic acid?
What is the suffix for a ketone?
What type of compound has a suffix of -al
What is the covalent bond in an alkane called and how is it formed?
Formed by the overlap of 2 s-orbitals. One from each bonding atom, each containing one electron so that two electrons are shared
What is the shape around each carbon atom in an alkane?
What happens to the boiling point when the chain length of an alkane is increased?
The molecules have a larger surface area so more surface contact is possible between molecules. The London forces will be greater and so more energy is required to overcome the forces
What happens to the boiling point when a molecule is more branched?
Lower boiling points
There are fewer points of contact and so fewer London forces
Are C-C bonds polar or non polar?
The atoms are the same
Are C-H bonds polar or non polar?
The electronegativity or carbon and hydrogen are very similar
In the presence of what do alkanes react with halogens?
Sunlight, the UV radiation provides the initial energy for the reaction to take place
What are the three stages of radical substitution?
Initiation, propagation, and termination
What happens in the initiation stage of of radical substitution?
The reaction is started when one covalent bond in a molecule is broken by homolytic fission.
Each atom takes one electron from the pair forming two highly reactive radicals.
What is the energy provided for the bond fission in the initiation stage?
What type of reaction occurs during the propagation step of a radical substitution reaction?
A chain reaction, through two steps
What happens in the termination stage of radical substitution?
Two radicals collide, forming a molecule with all electrons paired
What type of hydrocarbon are alkenes?
What is the general formula of an alkene?
Where does the electron come from to form pi-bonds in alkenes?
One unbonded electron is left on each carbon in a p-orbital
Where is pi-electron density concentrated?
Above and below the line joining the nuclei of the bonding atoms
What is the shape and bond angle around a carbon atom in a double bond?
Why does stereoisomerism occur around double bonds?
Rotation about the double bond is restricted and the groups attached to each carbon atom are therefore fixed relative to each other
What two conditions must a molecule satisfy for it to have E/Z isomerism
A carbon carbon double bond
Different atoms attached to each carbon atom of the double bond
What is the additional condition, other than those for E/Z isomerism, for a molecule to have cis-trans isomerism?
One of the attached groups on each carbon on the double bond must be hydrogen