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Flashcards in Module 5 Deck (151)
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1
Q

acetabulum

A

large, cup-shaped cavity located on the lateral side of the hip bone; formed by the junction of the ilium, pubis, and ischium portions of the hip bone

2
Q

acromioclavicular joint

A

articulation between the acromion of the scapula and the acromial end of the clavicle

3
Q

acromion

A

flattened bony process that extends laterally from the scapular spine to form the bony tip of the shoulder

4
Q

ankle joint

A

joint that separates the leg and foot portions of the lower limb; formed by the articulations between the talus bone of the foot inferiorly, and the distal end of the tibia, medial malleolus of the tibia, and lateral malleolus of the fibula superiorly

5
Q

appendicular skeleton

A

all bones of the upper and lower limbs, plus the girdle bones that attach each limb to the axial skeleton

6
Q

arm

A

region of the upper limb located between the shoulder and elbow joints; contains the humerus bone

7
Q

articulation

A

where 2 bone surfaces meet

8
Q

atlanto-occipital joint

A

articulation between the occipital condyles of the skull and the superior articular processes of the atlas (C1 vertebra)

9
Q

atlas

A

first cervical (C1) vertebra

10
Q

axial skeleton

A

central, vertical axis of the body, including the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage

11
Q

axis

A

second cervical (C2) vertebra

12
Q

ball-and-socket joint

A

synovial joint formed between the spherical end of one bone (the ball) that fits into the depression of a second bone (the socket); found at the hip and shoulder joints; functionally classified as a multiaxial joint

13
Q

biaxial joint

A

type of diarthrosis; a joint that allows for movements within 2 planes (2 axes)

14
Q

body of the rib

A

shaft portion of a rib

15
Q

bone

A

hard, dense connective tissue that forms the structural elements of the skeleton

16
Q

brain case

A

portion of the skull that contains and protects the brain, consisting of the 8 bones that form the cranial base and rounded upper skull

17
Q

calcaneus

A

heel bone; posterior, inferior tarsal bone that forms the heel of the foot

18
Q

carpal bone

A

one of the 8 small bones that form the wrist and base of the hand; these are grouped as a proximal row consisting of (from lateral to medial) the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform bones, and a distal row containing (from lateral to medial) the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones

19
Q

carpometacarpal joint

A

articulation between one of the carpal bones in the distal row and a metacarpal bone of the hand

20
Q

cervical vertibrae

A

7 vertebrae numbered as C1-C7 that are located in the neck region of the vertebral column

21
Q

circumduction

A

circular motion of the arm, thigh, hand, thumb, or finger that is produced by the sequential combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction

22
Q

clavicle

A

collarbone; elongated bone that articulates with the manubrium of the sternum medially and the acromion of the scapula laterally

23
Q

compact bone

A

dense osseous tissue that can withstand compressive forces

24
Q

condyle

A

oval-shaped process located at the top of the condylar process of the mandible

25
Q

condyloid joint

A

synovial joint in which the shallow depression at the end of one bone receives a rounded end from a second bone or a rounded structure formed by 2 bones; found at the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fingers or the radiocarpal joint of the wrist; functionally classified as a biaxial joint

26
Q

costal cartilage

A

hyaline cartilage structure attached to the anterior end of each rib that provides for either direct or indirect attachment of most ribs to the sternum

27
Q

coxal bone

A

hip bone

28
Q

cranial cavity

A

interior space of the skull that houses the brain

29
Q

cranium

A

skull

30
Q

depression

A

downward (inferior) motion of the scapula or mandible

31
Q

diaphysis

A

tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of a long bone

32
Q

dorsiflexion

A

movement at the ankle that brings the top of the foot toward the anterior leg

33
Q

elbow joint

A

joint located between the upper arm and forearm regions of the upper limb; formed by the articulations between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, and the capitulum of the humerus and the head of the radius

34
Q

elevation

A

upward (superior) motion of the scapula or mandible

35
Q

epiphyseal line

A

completely ossified remnant of the epiphyseal plate

36
Q

epiphyseal plate (growth plate)

A

sheet of hyaline cartilage in the metaphysis of an immature bone; replaced by bone tissue as the organ grows in length

37
Q

epiphysis

A

wide section at each end of a long bone; filled with spongy bone and red marrow

38
Q

ethmoid bone

A

unpaired bone that forms the roof and upper, lateral walls of the nasal cavity, portions of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and medial wall of orbit, and the upper portion of the nasal septum

39
Q

eversion

A

foot movement involving the intertarsal joints of the foot in which the bottom of the foot is turned laterally, away from the midline

40
Q

extension

A

movement in the sagittal plane that increases the angle of a joint (straightens the joint); motion involving posterior bending of the vertebral column or returning to the upright position from a flexed position

41
Q

facial bones

A

14 bones that support the facial structures and form the upper and lowers jaws and the hard plate

42
Q

false ribs

A

vertebrochondral ribs 8-12 whose costal cartilage either attaches indirectly to the sternum via the costal cartilage of the next higher rib or does not attach to the sternum at all

43
Q

femur

A

thigh bone; the single bone of the thigh

44
Q

fibula

A

thin, non-weight-bearing bone found on the lateral side of the leg

45
Q

flat bone

A

thin and curved bone; serves as a point of attachment for muscles and protects internal organs

46
Q

flexion

A

movement in the sagittal plane that decreases the angle of a joint (bends the joint); motion involving anterior bending of the vertebral column

47
Q

floating ribs

A

vertebral ribs 11-12 that do not attach to the sternum or to the costal cartilage of another rib

48
Q

foot

A

portion of the lower limb located distal to the ankle joint

49
Q

forearm

A

region of the upper limb located between the elbow and wrist joints; contains the radius and ulna bones

50
Q

foramen magnum

A

large opening in the occipital bone of the skull through which the spinal cord emerges and the vertebral arteries enter the cranium

51
Q

frontal bone

A

unpaired bone that forms forehead, roof of orbit, and floor of anterior cranial fossa

52
Q

glenohumeral joint

A

shoulder joint; formed by the articulation between the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus

53
Q

glenoid cavity (glenoid fossa)

A

shallow depression located on the lateral scapula, between the superior and lateral borders

54
Q

hallux

A

big toe; digit 1 of the foot

55
Q

hand

A

region of the upper limb distal to the wrist joint

56
Q

hard palate

A

bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity, formed by the palatine process of the maxillary bones and the horizontal plate of the palatine bones

57
Q

hinge joint

A

synovial joint at which the convex surface of one bone articulates with the concave surface of a second bone; includes the elbow, knee, ankle, and interphalangeal joints; functionally classified as a uniaxial joint

58
Q

hip bone

A

coxal bone; single bone that forms the pelvic girdle; consists of 3 areas: the ilium, ischium, and pubis

59
Q

hip joint

A

joint located at the proximal end of the lower limb; formed by the articulation between the acetabulum of the hip bone and the head of the femur

60
Q

humerus

A

single bone of the upper arm

61
Q

hyperextension

A

excessive extension of joint, beyond the normal range of movement

62
Q

hyperflexion

A

excessive flexion of joint, beyond the normal range of movement

63
Q

ilium

A

superior portion of hip bone

64
Q

inferior rotation

A

movement of the scapula during upper limb adduction in which the glenoid cavity of the scapula moves in a downward direction as the medial end of the scapular spine moves in an upward direction

65
Q

inversion

A

foot movement involving the intertarsal joints of the foot in which the bottom of the foot is turned toward the midline

66
Q

ischium

A

posteroinferior portion of the hip bone

67
Q

irregular bone

A

bone of complex shape; protects internal organs from compressive forces

68
Q

joint

A

site at which 2 or more bones or bone and cartilage come together (articulate)

69
Q

joint cavity

A

space enclosed by the articular capsule of a synovial joint that is filled with synovial fluid and contains the articulating surfaces of the adjacent bones

70
Q

knee joint

A

joint that separates the thigh and leg portions of the lower limb; formed by the articulations between the medial and lateral condyles of the femur, and the medial and lateral condyles of the tibia

71
Q

lacrimal bone

A

paired bones that contribute to the anterior-medial wall of each orbit

72
Q

lateral (external) rotation

A

movement of the arm at the shoulder joint or the thigh at the hip joint that moves the anterior surface of the limb away from the midline of the body

73
Q

lateral flexion

A

bending of the neck or body toward the right or left side

74
Q

leg

A

portion of the lower limb located between the knee and ankle joints

75
Q

long bone

A

cylinder-shaped bone that is longer than it is wide; functions as a lever

76
Q

ligament

A

strong band of dense connective tissue spanning between bones

77
Q

lumbar vertebrae

A

5 vertebrae numbered as L1-L5 that are located in the lumbar region (lower back) of the vertebral column

78
Q

mandible

A

unpaired bone that forms the lower jaw bone; the only moveable bone of the skull

79
Q

maxillary bone (maxilla)

A

paired bones that form the upper jaw and anterior portion of the hard plate

80
Q

medial (internal) rotation

A

movement of the arm at the shoulder joint or the thigh at the hip joint that brings the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body

81
Q

metacarpal bone

A

one of the 5 long bones that form the palm of the hand; numbered 1-5, starting on the lateral (thumb) side of the hand

82
Q

metatarsal bone

A

one of the 5 elongated bones that forms the anterior half of the foot; numbered 1-5, starting on the medial side of the foot

83
Q

metatarsophalangeal joint

A

articulation between a metatarsal bone of the foot and the proximal phalanx bone of a toe

84
Q

multiaxial joint

A

type of diarthrosis; a joint that allows for movements within 3 planes (3 axes)

85
Q

nasal bone

A

paired bones that form the base of the nose

86
Q

nasal cavity

A

opening through skull for passage of air

87
Q

occipital bone

A

unpaired bone that forms the posterior portions of the brain case and base of the skull

88
Q

occipital condyle

A

paired, oval-shaped bony knobs located on the inferior skull, to either side of the foramen magnum

89
Q

olecranon process

A

expanded posterior and superior portions of the proximal ulna; forms the bony tip of the elbow

90
Q

opposition

A

thumb movement that brings the tip of the thumb in contact with the tip of a finger

91
Q

orbit

A

bony socket that contains the eyeball and associated muscles

92
Q

osseous tissue

A

bone tissue; a hard, dense connective tissue that forms the structural elements of the skeleton

93
Q

palatine bone

A

paired bones that form the posterior quarter of the hard palate and a small area in floor of the orbit

94
Q

parietal bone

A

paired bones that form the upper, lateral sides of the skull

95
Q

patella

A

kneecap; the largest sesamoid bone of the body; articulates with the distal femur

96
Q

pectoral girdle

A

shoulder girdle; the set of bones, consisting of the scapula and clavicle, which attaches each upper limb to the axial skeleton

97
Q

pelvic girdle

A

hip girdle; consists of a single hip bone, which attaches a lower limb to the sacrum of the axial skeleton

98
Q

pelvic inlet

A

pelvic brim

99
Q

pelvic outlet

A

inferior opening of the lesser pelvis; formed by the inferior margin of the pubic symphysis, right and left ischiopubic rami and sacrotuberous ligaments, and the tip of the coccyx

100
Q

pelvis

A

ring of bone consisting of the left and right hip bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx

101
Q

phalanx bone of the foot
(plural=phalanges)

A

one of the 14 bones that form the toes; these include the proximal and distal phalanges of the big toe, and the proximal, middle, and distal phalanx bones of toes 2 through 5

102
Q

phalanx bone of the hand
(plural=phalanges)

A

one of the 14 bones that form the thumb and fingers; these include the proximal and distal phalanges of the thumb, and the proximal, middle, and distal phalanx bones of fingers 2 through 5

103
Q

pisiform

A

from the lateral side, the 4th of the 4 proximal carpal bones; articulates with the anterior surface of the triquetrum

104
Q

pivot joint

A

synovial joint at which the rounded portion of a bone rotates within a ring formed by a ligament and an articulating bone; functionally classified as a uniaxial joint

105
Q

plane joint

A

synovial joint formed between the flattened articulating surfaces of adjacent bones; functionally classified as a multiaxial joint

106
Q

plantar flexion

A

foot movement at the ankle in which the heel is lifted off of the ground

107
Q

pollex (thumb)

A

digit 1 of the hand

108
Q

pronated position

A

forearm position in which the palm faces backward

109
Q

pronation

A

forearm motion that moves the palm of the hand from the palm forward to the palm backward position

110
Q

pubic arch

A

bony structure formed by the pubic symphysis, and the bodies and inferior pubic rami of the right and left pubic bones

111
Q

pubis

A

anterior portion of the hip bone

112
Q

radius

A

bone located on the lateral side of the forearm

113
Q

reposition

A

movement of the thumb from opposition back to the anatomical position (next to index finger)

114
Q

ribs

A

thin, curved bones of the chest wall

115
Q

retraction

A

posterior motion of the scapula or mandible

116
Q

rotation

A

movement of a bone around a central axis (atlantoaxial joint) or around its long axis (proximal radioulnar joint; shoulder or hip joint); twisting of the vertebral column resulting from the summation of small motions between adjacent vertebrae

117
Q

sacrum

A

single bone located near the inferior end of the adult vertebral column that is formed by the fusion of 5 sacral vertebrae; forms the posterior portion of the pelvis

118
Q

scapula

A

shoulder blade bone located on the posterior side of the shoulder

119
Q

sesamoid bone

A

small, round bone embedded in a tendon; protects the tendon from compressive forces

120
Q

short bone

A

cube-shaped bone that is approximately equal in length, width, and thickness; provides limited motion

121
Q

skeleton

A

bones of the body

122
Q

skeletal system

A

organ system composed of bones and cartilage that provides for movement, support, and protection

123
Q

skull

A

bony structure that forms the head, face, and jaws, and protects the brain; consists of 22 bones

124
Q

spinous process

A

unpaired bony process that extends posteriorly from the vertebral arch of a vertebra

125
Q

spongy bone (cancellous bone)

A

trabeculated osseous tissue that supports shifts in weight distribution

126
Q

sternum

A

flattened bone located at the center of the anterior chest

127
Q

superior rotation

A

movement of the scapula during upper limb abduction in which the glenoid cavity of the scapula moves in an upward direction as the medial end of the scapular spine moves in a downward direction

128
Q

supinated position

A

forearm position in which the palm faces anteriorly (anatomical position)

129
Q

supination

A

forearm motion that moves the palm of the hand from the palm backward to the palm forward position

130
Q

suture

A

junction line at which adjacent bones of the skull are united by fibrous connective tissue

131
Q

symphysis

A

type of cartilaginous joint where the bones are joined by fibrocartilage

132
Q

synovial joint

A

joint at which the articulating surfaces of the bones are located within a joint cavity formed by an articular capsule

133
Q

talus

A

tarsal bone that articulates superiorly with the tibia and fibula at the ankle joint; also articulates inferiorly with the calcaneus bone and anteriorly with the navicular bone

134
Q

tarsal bone

A

one of the 7 bones that make up the posterior foot; includes the calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuboid, medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, and lateral cuneiform bones

135
Q

temporal bone

A

paired bones that form the lateral, inferior portions of the skull, with squamous, mastoid, and petrous portions

136
Q

temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

A

articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone of the skull; allows for depression/elevation (opening/closing of mouth), protraction/retraction, and side-to-side motions of the mandible

137
Q

tendon

A

dense connective tissue structure that anchors a muscle to bone

138
Q

thigh

A

portion of the lower limb located between the hip and knee joints

139
Q

thoracic cage

A

consists of 12 pairs of ribs and the sternum

140
Q

tibia

A

shin bone; the large, weight-bearing bone located on the medial side of the leg

141
Q

transverse process

A

paired bony processes that extend laterally from the vertebral arch of a vertebra

142
Q

true ribs

A

vertebrosternal ribs 1-7 that attach via their costal cartilage directly to the sternum

143
Q

ulna

A

bone located on the medial side of the forearm

144
Q

uniaxial joint

A

type of diarthrosis; joint that allows for motion within only 1 plane (1 axis)

145
Q

vertebra

A

individual bone in the neck and back regions of the vertebral column

146
Q

vertebral column

A

entire sequence of bones that extend from the skull to the tailbone

147
Q

vertebral foramen

A

opening associated with each vertebra defined by the vertebral arch that provides passage for the spinal cord

148
Q

vomer bone

A

unpaired bone that forms the inferior and posterior portions of the nasal septum

149
Q

xiphoid process

A

small process that forms the inferior tip of the sternum

150
Q

zygomatic arch

A

elongated, free-standing arch on the lateral skull, formed anteriorly by the temporal process of the zygomatic bone and posteriorly by the zygomatic process of the temporal bone

151
Q

zygomatic bone

A

cheekbone; paired bones that contribute to the lateral orbit and anterior zygomatic arch