Module 6: Respiratory Disorders Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology (Porth) > Module 6: Respiratory Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 6: Respiratory Disorders Deck (32):
1

Dyspnea

Discomfort in breathing (shortness of breath)

2

Orthopnea

Discomfort in breathing while lying down

3

PND

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea - waking up at night unable to breathe normally

4

Hemoptysis

Coughing up blood

5

Cyanosis

Bluish pigment of skin and mucous membranes due to increased amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood

6

Clubbing

Selective bulbous enlargement at the end of a finger

7

Hypercapnia/hypercarbnia

Increased amount of arterial carbon dioxide

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Hypoxemia

Reduced oxygenation of arterial blood

9

Hypoxia

Reduced oxygen supply to tissues

10

V/Q ratio

Refers to the ratio of air reaching the alveoli (ventilation) and the blood that the alveoli receives via capillaries (perfusion)

11

Physiological right to left shunt

Blood moving through unventilated parts of the lungs so no GAS EXCHANGE occurs between alveoli and the blood. Basically, blood moves from the right ventricle, to the lungs, then to left ventricle without being oxygenated

12

Flail chest

Chest moves in with inspiration and out with expiration (paradoxical movement) caused by trauma to chest that fractures consecutive ribs

13

Pneumothorax

Presence of air in the pleural cavity caused by a rupture in visceral or parietal pleura

14

Pleural effusion

Excess fluid in the pleural space

15

Empyema

Infected pleural effusion

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Atelectasis

Collapse of lung tissue

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Pulmonary embolism

Occlusion of a portion of a pulmonary vascular bed by an EMBOLUS

18

Pulmonary hypertension

Elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure

19

Cor pulmonale

Right heart failure caused by lung disease

20

COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder - characterized by airway obstruction that caused difficult EXHALATION (emphysema and chronic bronchitis)

21

Air trapping

Difficulty to move air out during exhalation

22

Chronic bronchitis

Hypersecretion of mucous and productive cough for 3 months for at least 2 consecutive years

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Emphysema

Loss of LUNG ELASTICITY and abnormal enlargement of airspaces distal to terminal BRONCHIOLES with destruction of alveoli walls and capillaries

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Pink puffer

Term used to describe those who suffer from emphysema. Starts off with less hypoxemia because they can still get adequate oxygen but must use accessory respiratory muscles

25

Blue bloater

Those who suffer from chronic bronchitis, blood is not well oxygenated hence the blue, bloater refers to edema caused by eventual right heart failure

26

ARDS

Acute respiratory distress syndrome -severe form of acute lung injury involving inflammation of the lungs and injury to alveolocapillary membrane

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Acute respiratory failure

Inadequate gas exchange leading to: lower PaO2 levels, higher PaCO2 levels and pH higher than 7.30

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Hypoxemic respiratory failure

Respiratory failure due to failure of gas exchange in the lungs (from V/Q mismatch)

29

Hypercapnic/hypoxemic respiratory failure

Respiratory failure due to problems with VENTILATION

30

Croup

Barking cough

31

Stridor

Wheezing sound during inspiration indicates obstruction in upper respiratory tract

32

Retraction

Indentations in skin around ribs and sternum, indicating chronic use of accessory respiratory muscles to breathe