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Flashcards in Module 7 Deck (48):
1

Pliocene epoch

The time of the hominids.

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hominid

humans and human ancestors

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hominoid

apes and humans

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Australpithecus

a major genera of hominid line

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homo

a major genera of hominid line

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Arthipithecus

A tentative third genus to the hominid line

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Louis Leakey

famous paleoanthropologists

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Mary Leakey

famous paleoanthropologists

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bipedal locamotion

walking on two feet

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Jollys small food foraging model

That hominids had to stand up to use their hands to forage small foods

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shipment scavenging model

Scavenging required bipedalism so individuals could walk over long distances to find carcasses

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lovejoys provisioning model

Decrease in food supplies required males to carry back food for their offspring. Females needed males to come back, beginning of monogamy

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wheelers walk to stay cool model

allowed to forage in open savanna withstanding high temperatures for longer periods of time

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neurological adaptations

Expanded brain allows for primates to respond to unique and complicated problems.

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locomotor adaptations

Striding, low energy locomotion built for endurance. Cover long distances without burning a lot of energy

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dental adaptations

Generalized allowing for a broad range of foodstuffs

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parabolic dental arcade

because hominid teeth were smaller and not needing as much space as pinged teeth

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Arthipithecus ramidus

Ground ape and root. Lived in forest, challenging ideas that we started out on the savanna.

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Australopithecus

lived 4.2 to 1 mya. The ancestors of all later hominids . Cranial capacity of 450-500 cc, increased cognitive ability.

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Taung Baby

The first australopithecus fossil. A child of 6 years old.

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Australopithecus

lived 4.2 to 1 mya. The ancestors of all later hominids . Cranial capacity of 450-500 cc, increased cognitive ability. Human

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Australopithecus africanus

African southern ape, what the Taung baby was named

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Australopithecus africanus

African southern ape, what the Taung baby was named

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robust

LUcy

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piltdown skull

The idea that enlarged brain preceded bipedalism and post cranial development

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mosaic evolution

When different parts of the body evolve at different times

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parietal lobe

the middle lobe on top of head

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temporal lobe

lobe in middle

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frontal lobe

lobe in the front

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concave face

dish shaped face

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A anamensis

4.2 to 3.9 mya, large canine teeth, ape like features, thick tooth enamel, ancestor of all hominids, forest dwelling

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gracile

Ancestral to robust forms, smaller lighter builds

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robust

Bigger, with more powerful jaw

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Lucy

An A afaransis found in Hadar at the Afar triangle

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afar triangle

The area where Lucy was found

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sagittal crest

ridge bone along the top of the skull for attachment of chewing muscles

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Hadar

an area in Ethiopia

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First Family

Entire social group of A afarensis found in Hadar

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A africanus

3-2.3 mya gracile type, found in kenya and ethiopia

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A afarensis

3.9-2.9 mya The oldest of gracile types

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Sterkfontein

An important locality for A africanus fossils near Johannesburg

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Kromdraai

An important locality for A africanus fossils near Johannesburg

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A robustus

1.8-1 mya, robust type, taller, massive more ape like jaw.

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paranthropus robustus

The previous name of A robustus

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Swartkrans

located across the valley from Sterkfontein, area of many A robustus fossils

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Zinjanthropus boisei

The first name given by the Leakys to A Boisei due to its big head

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A boisei

Large molars, large head, heavy bones, big dude, lived at 2.5 to 1.3 mya

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WT 17000

A A boisei skull called the black skull displaying the features of A boisei but more primitive, suggesting a separate lineage that A robustus.