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Flashcards in Morality in sport Deck (24)
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1

what is morality

Nobody can acquire honor by doing what is
wrong”
President Thomas Jefferson, US President,
1801-1809

2

what is the Six-stage sequence (divided into 3 levels) of moral development
and problem solving in relation to moral reasoning?

Pre-Conventional Level-
Solving moral conflict through egocentric reasoning
Conventional Level-
Resolve moral conflict through the eyes of groups and society
Post-Conventional Level-
Recognise universal values such as justice and equality.
Moral
decisions based on self-chosen ethical principles.

3

what is Bracketed Morality

-Moral reasoning in sport is depart from that of
everyday life.
-Moral reasoning in sport is less mature (i.e.,
more egocentric) than in everyday life termed
as “game reasoning”
-Antisocial acts could be deemed more
legitimate in sport contexts.

4

What influences athletes’ moral reasoning?

Sport Type:
Contact vs. Non-contact

Moral Atmosphere
refers to a set of collective norms regarding
moral action on the part of group members.

Significant Others
(e.g., coaches, teacher, parents, peers)

5

Rest’s model of moral action(four process)

1) Interpret situation and consider courses of action
and welfare for others
2) What ought to be done (moral judgement)
3) What one intends to do (moral intention)
4) Implementing a planned action (moral behaviour)

6

what is Moral Reasoning

How a individual resolves a moral conflict.

7

what is Moral Functioning

Collective term for moral judgement,
moral intention and moral behaviour

8

Measurements of moral behaviour

Self-report:
Frequency of sport specific moral behaviours

Observation:
Video analysis of behaviours – identify and code moral
acts.

Coach ratings:
Coaches asked to rate frequency of aggressive acts
from their team members

9

What is aggression

Aggression - the intention to harm another
individual outside the rules of the activity
(Tenenbaum et al., 1997)

10

Two types of aggression

Instrumental (proactive) – intention to harm
as a means to an end (e.g., external goal of
victory or prestige)

Hostile (reactive) – directed to another
following provocation (e.g., anger response)

11

WQhat is assertion

In short, in life, as in a football game, the principle
to follow is: Hit the line hard; don't foul and don't
shirk, but hit the line hard!"

Theodore Roosevelt, The Strenuous Life (1900)

12

What is assertive behaviour

Involves legitimate use of physical or verbal force to
achieve purpose without the intention to harm.

13

Hostile aggression characteristics

1. Intent to harm
2. Goal to harm
3. Unusual effort and
energy expenditure
(anger present)

14

Instrumental aggression characteristics

1. Intent to harm
2. Goal to win
3. No anger

15

Instinct theory - who and what is it?

(Freud, 1950; Gill, 1966)
Human have innate instinct to be aggressive. Sport is a context to release “pent-up” aggression

16

Social learning theory - who and what?

Learning as a vicarious process through modelling/ imitation

17

Frustration hypothesis - who and what?

(Dollard et al., 1939)
Aggression that results from anger
when frustrated. Aggression
provides a cathartic effect

18

Reformulated Frustration hypothesis

Berkowitz (1965, 1993):
- Provides interactional model between social learning and
frustration hypothesis
- Frustration does not always lead to aggression but
increases the likelihood via arousal and anger
- Aggression only results if deemed acceptable via socially
learning cues (e.g., moral atmosphere, significant others)

frustration - increased arousal - appropriateness of action - aggression

19

motivation - task goal orientations

success is defined in terms of self-referenced
criteria, such as mastery and
improvement.

20

motivation - ego goal orientations

success is defined in terms of other-referenced
criteria, such as being superior or outperforming
others

21

motivation - mastery climate

skill mastery and improvement is emphasised where
effort is praised and mistakes are
seen as part of learning

22

motivation - performance climate

normative comparisons between group members
is emphasised where superiority is
praised.

23

How is motivation linked with moral
behaviour in sport?

Ego orientation
Task orientation
//
antisocial behaviour
^^
performance climate

Task orientation>> Pro social behaviour <

24

Implications for controlling antisocial
behaviour

Moral education/ modelling of good sportspersonship
 Emphasis on mastery climate
 Performance climate not emphasises at the expense of
mastery climate
 Emotion control strategies (e.g., relaxation, cognitive
techniques)