Flashcards in Morality in sport Deck (24)
what is morality
Nobody can acquire honor by doing what is
President Thomas Jefferson, US President,
what is the Six-stage sequence (divided into 3 levels) of moral development
and problem solving in relation to moral reasoning?
Solving moral conflict through egocentric reasoning
Resolve moral conflict through the eyes of groups and society
Recognise universal values such as justice and equality.
decisions based on self-chosen ethical principles.
what is Bracketed Morality
-Moral reasoning in sport is depart from that of
-Moral reasoning in sport is less mature (i.e.,
more egocentric) than in everyday life termed
as “game reasoning”
-Antisocial acts could be deemed more
legitimate in sport contexts.
What influences athletes’ moral reasoning?
Contact vs. Non-contact
refers to a set of collective norms regarding
moral action on the part of group members.
(e.g., coaches, teacher, parents, peers)
Rest’s model of moral action(four process)
1) Interpret situation and consider courses of action
and welfare for others
2) What ought to be done (moral judgement)
3) What one intends to do (moral intention)
4) Implementing a planned action (moral behaviour)
what is Moral Reasoning
How a individual resolves a moral conflict.
what is Moral Functioning
Collective term for moral judgement,
moral intention and moral behaviour
Measurements of moral behaviour
Frequency of sport specific moral behaviours
Video analysis of behaviours – identify and code moral
Coaches asked to rate frequency of aggressive acts
from their team members
What is aggression
Aggression - the intention to harm another
individual outside the rules of the activity
(Tenenbaum et al., 1997)
Two types of aggression
Instrumental (proactive) – intention to harm
as a means to an end (e.g., external goal of
victory or prestige)
Hostile (reactive) – directed to another
following provocation (e.g., anger response)
WQhat is assertion
In short, in life, as in a football game, the principle
to follow is: Hit the line hard; don't foul and don't
shirk, but hit the line hard!"
Theodore Roosevelt, The Strenuous Life (1900)
What is assertive behaviour
Involves legitimate use of physical or verbal force to
achieve purpose without the intention to harm.
Hostile aggression characteristics
1. Intent to harm
2. Goal to harm
3. Unusual effort and
Instrumental aggression characteristics
1. Intent to harm
2. Goal to win
3. No anger
Instinct theory - who and what is it?
(Freud, 1950; Gill, 1966)
Human have innate instinct to be aggressive. Sport is a context to release “pent-up” aggression
Social learning theory - who and what?
Learning as a vicarious process through modelling/ imitation
Frustration hypothesis - who and what?
(Dollard et al., 1939)
Aggression that results from anger
when frustrated. Aggression
provides a cathartic effect
Reformulated Frustration hypothesis
Berkowitz (1965, 1993):
- Provides interactional model between social learning and
- Frustration does not always lead to aggression but
increases the likelihood via arousal and anger
- Aggression only results if deemed acceptable via socially
learning cues (e.g., moral atmosphere, significant others)
frustration - increased arousal - appropriateness of action - aggression
motivation - task goal orientations
success is defined in terms of self-referenced
criteria, such as mastery and
motivation - ego goal orientations
success is defined in terms of other-referenced
criteria, such as being superior or outperforming
motivation - mastery climate
skill mastery and improvement is emphasised where
effort is praised and mistakes are
seen as part of learning
motivation - performance climate
normative comparisons between group members
is emphasised where superiority is
How is motivation linked with moral
behaviour in sport?
Task orientation>> Pro social behaviour <