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Flashcards in More About Bones Deck (48):
1

What are the basic funtions of the bones?

Bones

  • Support the body
  • Protect the body
  • Allow movement to the body
  • Storage
  • Blood cell formation

2

Referring to the support function of the bones, what would happen if we did not have bones?

Without bones, we would not be able to stand up straight, stand up at all. 

3

Referring to the protection function of the bones, what would happen if we did not have bones?

Without bones, important organs (like the heart and lungs) would not be protected and could be easily damaged by something external.

4

Referring to the movement functions of the bones, what would happen if we did not have bones?

We would not be able to move. Muscles contract and stretch to move the bones. 

5

Referring to the storage function of the bones, what would happen if we did not have bones?

There would be nothing to store important minerals like calcium and phosphorus, as well as, bone marrow (red and yellow)

6

What is the difference between the yellow and red bone marrow?

Yellow marrow is found in the medullary cavity and stores fat. Red marrow is found in the cavities of many bones and is critically important for hematopoiesis.  

7

What is hematopoiesis? 

blood cell formation

8

Referring to the hematopoiesis function of the bones, what would happen if there were no bones?

There would be no red marrow to produce blood cells

9

What do blood cells do?

Our blood cells deliver oxygen to tissues throughout the body, and transport waste in the form of carbon dioxide to the lungs so we can breathe the waste out.

10

Where is red marrow found?

Red marrow is found in flat bones and at the end on long bones.

11

What are the structural building blocks of bones?

Cells

12

What are osteocytes?

mature bone cells

13

What is bone tissue made of?

60%-70% of the bone weight comes from mineral content (usually calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate)

30%-40% of the bone weight comes from collagen

14

What is collagen?

A protein that provides bone's flexibility, and water.

15

Why do the bones of children tend to be more flexible than the bones of adults?

Children have more collagen and water content in their bones than adults.

16

What is cortical tissue?

a dense tissue with a high mineral content. it is very strong, not too flexible, and is the outer surface of all bones.

17

What is trabecular tissue?

a porous tissue with a low mineral content, low stength, very flexible, and is usually found in places like the verebrae and wrists.

18

What are the four types of shapes a bone can be classified by?

long, short, flat, and irregular

19

Name an example of a bone that will fit into each bone shape classification. 

  • long - humerus
  • short - metacarpal
  • flat - sternum
  • irregular - hips

20

What are the epiphyses and diaphysis of a long bone?

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21

Where are the periosteum and the endosteum of a long bone?

The periosteum surround the diaphysis and contains blood vessels and nerves, and the endosteum lines the medullary cavity (which has yellow marrow in it).

22

What is the epiphysis and what is it made of?

Epiphysis is the bulbous endings of long bones. This region of the bone is composed of trabecular bone that contains red marrow. Each epiphysis is surrounded by articular cartilage

23

What is another name for red blood cells? White blood cells?

Red blood cells - erythrocytes

White blood cells - leukocytes

24

What is articular cartilage?

A protective layer the covers the epiphysis of a bone.

25

What is an osteon?

a functional unit of a bone

Here is a picture of what all these functions look like:

A image thumb
26

What is a haversian canal?

passage ways that travel length ways through the bone.

Here is a picture of what all these functions look like:

A image thumb
27

How many haversian canals does each osteon connect to?

one

28

Practically perpendicular to the haversian canals, what passage way interconnects with the haversian canals?

perforating or Volksman canals.

Here is a picture of what all these functions look like:

A image thumb
29

What is a lacunae?

tiny cavities that are layed out in circles and provide homes for osteocytes.

Here is a picture of what all these functions look like:

A image thumb
30

What are osteoblasts?

cells that build new bone tissue

31

What are osteoclasts?

cells that eliminate weakened or damaged bone tissue

32

What is bone modeling?

the process in which new bone is created through osteoblast activity during the formation and growth of immature bones

33

The skeleton of early-developing embryos is mainly composed of what flexible tissue?

hyline cartilage

34

the process of bone formation is called what?

ossification

35

Where do bones grow in length?

at the epiphyseal plate

36

How do bones grow in length?

osteoblasts produce new bone cells at the epiphyseal plate which produces bone length

37

How do bones grow in circmference?

Osteoblasts add layers of bone on top of old layers and osteoclasts resorb layers inside the medullary cavity causing the cavity to enlarge.

38

What is hypertrophy?

hypertrophy is the act the causes physically active people to have stronger, denser bones than sedentary people

39

How much of a person's body weight do bones account for?

about 15% regardless of body weight

40

What is atrophy?

Atrophy is the opposite of hypertrophy, and causes less active people to have weaker bones.

41

About how many bones does an infant have? Why?

an infant has about 300 bones because many of the single bones that adults have were 2 bones that fused together as the infant got older.

42

What three main parts is the axial skeleton composed of?

the skull, the verebral column, and the thoracic cage

43

What is a suture?

sutures are immovable joints

44

Fonatelle

baby soft spots in the skull

45

What two functions do fonatelles serve?

  1. they allow compression of the skull during birth
  2. they allow brain growth pre- and post- birth

46

How many vertebrae comprise the spine?

33

47

How are the cervical, thoracic, and lumber vertebrae different?

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