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What does a double contrast cystogram involve?

Soluble positive-contrast media and air injected directly into the bladder


For a centrifuge, the relationship between revolutions per minute (RPM) and relative centrifugal force (g or RCF) can be calculated based on what?

Radius of the centrifuge head


Typically, when should a dog or cat be offered food following gastrointestinal surgery?

12-24 hours after surgery


What purpose is the administration of the drug Guaifenesin typically used for in horses?

Muscle relaxation


What is true regarding Schiff-Sherrington posture?

It causes paralysis of the hind limbs


What kind of test amplifies DNA?

PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) test


What is the shock dose for cats? And for dogs?

45 ml/kg; 90 ml/kg both crystalliods


What are the steps to take best care of surgical instruments?

- Pre-rinse the instruments immediately after surgery to remove residues
- Place in ultrasonic cleaner for approximately 10 minutes
- Place in surgical milk
- Remove from surgical milk and let instruments dry


What maintains the membrane potential in excitable cells?

The sodium-potassium pump


What does periodontal disease affect?

The periodontum, which includes the gingiva, the alveolar bone, the periodontal ligament and cementum of the tooth


What is the purpose of the rheostat of the light source on a microscope?

To adjust light intensity


What is true about an adenoma?

It is a benign tumor that is not cancerous


What medication should be delivered through a filter?

Mannitol because it forms crystals in a solution


What makes tungsten an ideal material for the filament and target of an x-ray machine?

It has a very high melting point


Which drug is a commonly used sedative for horses?

Xylazine and Detomidine, both of these drugs are alpha 2-adrenergic agonists used for their sedative and analgesic effects


What are nutraceuticals?

Phytochemicals, chemicals or foodstuffs derived from plants (and occasionally animals) in the form of a supplement; these are not typically regulated by the government


Lufenuron, Fipronil, Selamectin and Imidacloprid are all used in treatment of what?



Which species is not susceptible to "hoof-and-mouth" disease?

Horses, it only affects cloven hoofed animals


How long after birth can foals and calves absorb protective maternal antibodies?

18-24 hours


Feline toxoplasmosis most often presents with which type of symptoms?

Neurologic, but fever, loss of appetite, and lethargy can also be symptoms


What is the function of the condenser on the microscope?

It's function is to focus light on the object, and when it is not set appropriately, rings of light or haloes appear around objects.


What retractors are not considered self-retaining?

- The Senn Rake retractor is not self-retaining and is considered a hand-held retractor
- It's main use is for retracting small muscle bellies, ligaments, and tendons
- Other examples include the Army-Navy, Myerding, and malleable retractors


What is the biggest risk when giving an animal fluids or medications via an orogastric or a nasogastric tube?

Placing tube into the lungs, so the tube goes down the trachea instead of the esophagus, which can lead to subsequent pneumonia and can have fatal consequences


Potassium citrate is most often given to dogs for what reason?

It is often supplemented in the diet to help prevent formation of calcium oxalate bladder stones


The veterinarian is performing an orthopedic exam and says a dog has positive Ortolani sign, what is this?

Hip dysplasia


Stimulation of the Vagus nerve results in what?

Vagal stimulation slows the heart rate


Before a patient can be anesthetized for full stabilization, what kind of bandage can be place for temporary stabilization of a fracture?

Temporary stabilization with a Robert-Jones compression bandage would be best


In order for oxygen to diffuse from the alveoli into the capillaries, the partial pressure of the oxygen in the alveoli in the lungs must be:

Higher in the lungs than in the capillaries


What is the measure of red blood cell size on a complete blood count?

Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)


What is a UMIC?

A UMIC is a urine minimum inhibitory concentration, it basically indicates which bacteria are present and to which antibiotics those organisms are susceptible