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Psych 1H: Exam 1 > Motivation and Emotion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Motivation and Emotion Deck (28)
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1

What is motivation?

A need or desire that energized and directs behavior towards a goal

2

What is explicit motivation?

Your "stated" goals, desires, or needs that may affect your behavior

- goals can be primed depending on your location or environment

3

What is implicit motivation?

Needs or desires that are unstated or "implied" by your behavior

- breathing, eating
- these goals are goals that you don't focus on, but you still complete them

4

What are the 3 subcomponents of motivation?

Activation
- state your new goals
- initiating them

Persistence
- regulate your behavior to work on the most important goal
- the more persistence you have, the more likely you are to succeed

Intensity
- what are the consequences if you fail?
- e.g., losing weight to look good is much less intense than losing weight to prevent heart disease

5

What is evolutionary psychology (instinct theory)?

- Charles Darwin and David Buss

Human behavior exhibits innate tendencies or instincts

Instincts - complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

6

What is Drive-Reduction Theory?

- Dollard and Miller (1950)

The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

Need -> Drive -> Drive reduc. behavior
(Water) (Thirst) (Drinking)

7

Define incentive

A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

8

What is Arousal Theory?

- Berlyne 1960

Even when all our biological needs are met, we feel driven to experience stimulation.

- we want to do exciting things

9

What type of psychologist is Maslow?

Humanist

10

What does Maslow's Humanistic Theory of Motivation state?

- 1954

He believed that we are always motivated to do something, and that these motivations are very complex.

He believed we are always growing towards self actualization.

11

What are the levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

Self-Actualization
- self-fulfillment
- one's potential

Esteem (Higher)
- self esteem, confidence, achievements, freedom

Esteem (Lower)
- need to build recognition, status, reputation from others

Belonging and Love
- to affiliate with others
- be accepted, give and receive attention

Safety
- feel secure and safe
- seek pleasure, avoid pain

Physiological
- hunger, thirst

13

What are deficit needs?

The ones below Esteem needs

14

What are Being needs?

Self actualization needs

15

How did Maslow study self-actualization?

He analyzed the lives of people he thought were self-actualizing and came up with a list of common characteristics

16

What is Self-Determination Theory?

- Deci and Ryan (2000)

There are 3 basic needs for optimal human functioning:

1. Competence
- feeling of mastery/success
2. Autonomy
- the need to 'feel' as though you have free will to do your life
3. Relatedness
- need to have affectionate relationships with others

17

What is intrinsic motivation vs extrinsic motivation?

Intrinsic
- things I want to do
- "I get to go to Disneyland!"

Extrinsic
- things I need to do
- "I have to do my math hw"

18

What is emotion?

A response of the whole organism
- physiological arousal
> hearts race
> red in face with anger

Expressive behaviors
- pace might quicken or slow

Conscious experience
- thoughts and feelings

19

What is James-Lange's Theory of Emotion?

- 1890

Experience of emotion is awareness oh physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

E.g.,

1. Car coming at you
2. Heart starts pounding
3. Express fear

20

How was James-Lange's Theory of Emotion tested?

Students watched cartoon with pencils in their mouths

- Group holding pencil with teeth = smiling
> enjoyed cartoon more

- Group holding pencil with lips = frowning
> enjoyed cartoon less

21

What is Cannon-Bard's Theory of Emotion?

- 1927

Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger

E.g., heart pounding and expression of fear happen at the same time

22

What is Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion?

- 1962

We must label our physical arousal reactions before we experience the emotion

E.g., we label our heart pounding as "fear" when we see a car coming towards us

23

What is Misattribution of Arousal?

When your physiological arousal from a previous event affects your emotional reactions in the current occurring event

24

What two experiments demonstrate Schachter's Two-Factor Theory?

1. Participants injected with epinephrine, some informed and some not informed about side effects

2. Participants forced to cross bridge, woman talks before bridge and on bridge (Dutton and Aron 1974)

25

What is nonverbal communication?

Humans are innately programmed to project basic nonverbal facial expressions that are universally recognized

26

What are Carroll Izard's 10 basic emotions?

Joy (happiness)
Interest (excitement)
Surprise
Sadness
Anger
Disgust
Contempt
Fear
Shame
Guilt

27

What are Paul Ekman's 17 basic emotions?

Anger
Disgust
Fear
Happiness
Sadness
Surprise
Amusement
Contempt
Contentment
Embarrassment
Excitement
Guilt
Pride in achievement
Relief
Satisfaction
Sensory pleasure
Shame

28

What is Subjective Well-Being?

- Self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
- used along with measures of objective well being
> physical and economic indicators evaluate people's quality of life

29

What are the characteristics of self-actualizers?

- Reality centered
- Problem centered
- Different perception of means and ends (value stepping stones)
- Enjoyed solitude
- Enjoyed fewer, deeper personal relations
- Enjoyed autonomy (independence)
- Resisted enculturation (becoming part of a culture)
- Unhostile sense of humor (laugh at themselves)
- Strong acceptance of others
- Spontaneous and simple
- Human kinship / strong ethic
- Freshness of appreciation
- More peak experiences