Flashcards in Motivation and Emotion Deck (28)
What is motivation?
A need or desire that energized and directs behavior towards a goal
What is explicit motivation?
Your "stated" goals, desires, or needs that may affect your behavior
- goals can be primed depending on your location or environment
What is implicit motivation?
Needs or desires that are unstated or "implied" by your behavior
- breathing, eating
- these goals are goals that you don't focus on, but you still complete them
What are the 3 subcomponents of motivation?
- state your new goals
- initiating them
- regulate your behavior to work on the most important goal
- the more persistence you have, the more likely you are to succeed
- what are the consequences if you fail?
- e.g., losing weight to look good is much less intense than losing weight to prevent heart disease
What is evolutionary psychology (instinct theory)?
- Charles Darwin and David Buss
Human behavior exhibits innate tendencies or instincts
Instincts - complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
What is Drive-Reduction Theory?
- Dollard and Miller (1950)
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
Need -> Drive -> Drive reduc. behavior
(Water) (Thirst) (Drinking)
A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
What is Arousal Theory?
- Berlyne 1960
Even when all our biological needs are met, we feel driven to experience stimulation.
- we want to do exciting things
What type of psychologist is Maslow?
What does Maslow's Humanistic Theory of Motivation state?
He believed that we are always motivated to do something, and that these motivations are very complex.
He believed we are always growing towards self actualization.
What are the levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
- one's potential
- self esteem, confidence, achievements, freedom
- need to build recognition, status, reputation from others
Belonging and Love
- to affiliate with others
- be accepted, give and receive attention
- feel secure and safe
- seek pleasure, avoid pain
- hunger, thirst
What are deficit needs?
The ones below Esteem needs
What are Being needs?
Self actualization needs
How did Maslow study self-actualization?
He analyzed the lives of people he thought were self-actualizing and came up with a list of common characteristics
What is Self-Determination Theory?
- Deci and Ryan (2000)
There are 3 basic needs for optimal human functioning:
- feeling of mastery/success
- the need to 'feel' as though you have free will to do your life
- need to have affectionate relationships with others
What is intrinsic motivation vs extrinsic motivation?
- things I want to do
- "I get to go to Disneyland!"
- things I need to do
- "I have to do my math hw"
What is emotion?
A response of the whole organism
- physiological arousal
> hearts race
> red in face with anger
- pace might quicken or slow
- thoughts and feelings
What is James-Lange's Theory of Emotion?
Experience of emotion is awareness oh physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
1. Car coming at you
2. Heart starts pounding
3. Express fear
How was James-Lange's Theory of Emotion tested?
Students watched cartoon with pencils in their mouths
- Group holding pencil with teeth = smiling
> enjoyed cartoon more
- Group holding pencil with lips = frowning
> enjoyed cartoon less
What is Cannon-Bard's Theory of Emotion?
Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger
E.g., heart pounding and expression of fear happen at the same time
What is Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion?
We must label our physical arousal reactions before we experience the emotion
E.g., we label our heart pounding as "fear" when we see a car coming towards us
What is Misattribution of Arousal?
When your physiological arousal from a previous event affects your emotional reactions in the current occurring event
What two experiments demonstrate Schachter's Two-Factor Theory?
1. Participants injected with epinephrine, some informed and some not informed about side effects
2. Participants forced to cross bridge, woman talks before bridge and on bridge (Dutton and Aron 1974)
What is nonverbal communication?
Humans are innately programmed to project basic nonverbal facial expressions that are universally recognized
What are Carroll Izard's 10 basic emotions?
What are Paul Ekman's 17 basic emotions?
Pride in achievement
What is Subjective Well-Being?
- Self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
- used along with measures of objective well being
> physical and economic indicators evaluate people's quality of life