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Flashcards in Motor Learning Deck (22):
1

Plasticity Defined

the modifiability the brain with short term changes in efficiency & strength and long term changes in organization and number
-it is environmentally dependent neuronal reorganization

2

2 conditions under which plasticity occurs

-adaptive mechanism of injury (damage)
-typical brain development (beginning of life & adulthood )
-->critical period in first 1-2 yrs in which certain skills must be learned or they will never be formed

3

Plasticity: Learning Occurs when...

-internal changes w/in synapses (amy of NT released) of the neurons occur
-increase in the number of synapses b/t neurons

4

Functional plasticity

brains ability tome functions
-->when an are of the brain has damage, need to move function so another area can take over/compensate for that damage/loss

5

Structural plasticity

ability to changes structure w/ inc synapses or cortical re-mapping

6

Acquisition of Skills: brain during critical period

-always "on"
-unregulated change in response to overflow of stimuli
-mass synaptic formation (very little/no synaptic pruning)

7

Acquisition of Skills: brain during adulthood

-periods of "off"
-able to generate reliable & coordinated responses
-synaptogenesis and pruning are more balanced

8

Recovery of Function

recovery= requisition of skills
function= complex neuronal activity related to the performance of a task

9

Things impacting recovery of function...

-age
-neurotropic factors
-pre/post injury factors
-characteristics of lesions

10

plasticity & recovery of function d/t Injury occurs at many levels...

-intracellular level
-intercellular level
-network level
-brain level
-biochemical level
-genetic level

11

After injury may see: Denervation of Supersensitivity

hypersensitivity to stimuli of the post-synaptic cell following damage

12

After injury may see: Unmasking of Silent Synapses

brains ability to recruit synapses infrequently used when "primary synapses" are damages

13

After injury may see: neuronal Regeneration

new growth of neurons

14

After injury may see: Collateral Sprouting

synapses from surrounding area "sprout" over into the damaged area to compensate

15

Recall Schema

selection of specific responses among past movement outcomes

16

recognition schema

evaluation of response against past movement outcome

17

Theories of motor Learning

-Schmidts schema theory
-Ecological theory

18

Schmidts Schema Theory

-motor learning is an ongoing process of recall and recognition
-variability of practice will improve this motor learning
-RULE BASED
-->does not account for immediate acquisition of motor skills

19

Ecological theory

Use of perceptual cues to perform the most efficient outcome-->perceptual info drives motor info
ex. drinking from a glass, need to know what force to use & how far away the cup is from our mouth...

20

Limitations to ecological theory

newer theory, not much evidence to support it

21

Clinical Implications of ecological theory

-repeated practice under varying conditions
-using relevant perceptual cues to create OPTIMAL motor strategies

22

Fits & Posners 3 stages of motor learning

Cognitive: what has to be done? assessment of the task
Associative: how to do it best? refinement of motor pathways
Autonomous: how to succeed? movement planned at higher levels