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Flashcards in MRI: QA and Safety Deck (18)
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What are the required qualities of a test object for QA?

Must test the scanner under routine conditions.
- Appropriate for TR and TEs used for clinical imaging
- Relaxation times mimicking tissue (T1, T2, T1/T2 ratio)

High-temperature stability
- Relaxation times can be temperature dependent

Minimal susceptibility effects - introduce distortion
- Differences in magnetic susceptibility to free space
- Minimal differences in magnetic susceptibility within the object


What are the three basic regions of a QA test object and what do they measure?

Grid of holes - test geometry
Flood Field - Uniformity
Wedges - Slice Position/Profile


What components of the scanner affect SNR?

Poor RF calibration/amplifier problem - low flip angle
RF coil performance
Pre-amp problem


How is SNR measured?

Tested on uniform flood field.
Collect two images with identical parameters
Subtract the scans
Measure the Signal (S) as the mean across five ROI in the basic image.
Measure standard deviation (SD) of noise in the same ROI in the difference image.


What components of the scanner affect uniformity?

RF coil problem (channels not behaving equally)
Shim problem (poor B(0) homogeneity)


How is uniformity measured?

Measured on the flood field image
Measure intensity profile across the image - should be flat
Measure SD of the signal over the largest area of object - uniform intensity produces narrow distribution.


What components of the scanner affect ghosting/stability?

RF amplitude
RF phase
Gradient strength
Noise on room temperature shims


What components of the scanner affect the image geometry?

Gradient amplifier problem (axes not equally calibrated)
Pre-emphasis performance
Shim problem (poor B(0) homogeneity)


What components of the scanner affect the slice profile/thickness/offset?

RF waveform controller.


What hazards arise from an MRI scanner?

Static magnetic field
Time-varying magnetic fields (from Magnetic gradients and RF)
Contrast Agents


What hazards arise from the static magnetic field?

Permanent hazard
Mechanical effects on metal objects giving rise to particular forces on the object (indirect effects)
- Transational force,rotational force, eddy current damping.
Biological effect (direct effects)


What hazards arise from the time varying magnetic field

Peripheral nerve stimulation
Acoustic noise
RF burns


What RF exposure standards exist?

Specific Absorption Rate of 2 (normal) or 4W/kg (first-level controlled) averaged over 6min


At what point should hearing protection be given to the patient?

If the scan is likely to exceed 99dB.


What exposure standard exist for the static field?

2T for normal operating mode
2-4T for first-level controlled operation
Above 4T for second-level controlled operation


What should be included in MRI local rules?

Procedures to follow in an emergency
Contact details for:
- MR responsible person
- MR safety advisor
- MR authorised persons
Controlled access areas


What magnetic field strength magnetic field defines an MR Controlled area?



What are the three categories of medical devices classified by the ASTM standard?

MR Safe - poses no known hazards to all MR environments
MR Conditional - an item that has been shown to pose no known in a specified MR environment with specific conditions of use.
MR Unsafe - an item that is known to pose hazards in all MR environments