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Flashcards in MSK, Head & Neck Deck (38)
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1

What are the 7 bodily structures relevant to a head & neck assessment?

Skull
Muscles
Salivary glands
Temporal Artery
Lymph Nodes
Trachea
Thyroid Gland

2

On your own head, point to the following bones of the skull:
Frontal bone, parietal bone, temporal bone, occipital bone, maxilla, mandible, mastoid process, and temporomandibular joint

look at a diagram on google or in notes to confirm

3

On your own head, point to the following muscles/parts of the head:
palpebral fissure, nasolabial fold, masseter, sternomastoid, trapezious

look at a diagram on google or in notes to confirm

4

On your own head, point to the following lymph nodes of the head:
posterior auricular, preauricular, occipital, jogulodigastric, superficial cervical, deep cervical chain, posterior cervical, supraclavicular, submandibular, submental

look at a diagram on google or in notes to confirm

5

What are the 3 salivary glands in the jaw? Name them from top of the mandible down to the chin.

parotid gland
submandibular gland
sublingual gland

6

What are the major arteries (2) that stem from the common carotid artery and veins (2) surrounding the sternomastoid muscle and the one artery that carries on to the face?

Internal jugular vein
External jugular vein
Temporal artery (face)
external carotid artery
internal carotid artery

7

What are the two salivary glands you can see by inspection if they are infected?

Parotid & sublingual

8

Name the major structures of the neck (9) [in order from highest to lowest]

hyoid bone
thyroid cartilage
cricoid cartilage
thyroid gland
isthmus of the thyroid
trachea
sternomastoid musle
clavicle
manubrium (of sternum)
check notes for diagram

9

What anatomical structure is also known as the adams apple

thyroid cartilage

10

What are some developmental considerations for the head/neck of infants?

- Fontanels "soft spots"
- Caput Succedaneum (swelling/bruising on the presenting part; will self-resolve)
- Cephalohematoma (hemorrhage between the periosteum and the skull; will self-resolve)
- Molding

11

What are some developmental considerations for the head/neck of pregnant women and older persons?

pregnant persons
- thyroid hyperplasia (enlargement)

older persons
- decrease elasticity and fat stores in the skin may cause facial bones to appear more prominent

12

What are the components of a subjective head & neck assessment? (5) What do you do if you find any abnormalities?

- unusual/ frequent headaches
- history of head injuries & lasting symptoms; surgeries
- dizziness/vertigo
- neck pain and/or limited neck movement
- lumps or swelling
If any of these are found -> PQRSTU AAA

13

Describe the difference b/w objective and subjective vertigo.

obj = room spinning
subj = the person feels like they're spinning

14

What things should you inspect and palpate for during the objective assessment of the head and neck?

- size and shape of head
- temporal area (symmetry + temporomandibular joint)
- face (symmetry)
- neck (symm, ROM, enlarged lymph nodes, enlarged salivery glands)
- trachea
- thyroid gland

15

Describe difference b/w microcephaly and macrocephaly

micro - small head
macro - large head

16

What is the technique for palpating lymph nodes? What are we looking for?

Using gentle circular motions. Looking for size, shape, location, mobility, consistency (hard/soft), tenderness.

17

Describe what a normal healthy node should feel like?

moveable, soft, and non-tender nodes

18

Describe what an infected node should feel like?

enlarged (palpable), tender, firm, and movable nodes

19

Describe what a possibly cancerous node should feel like?

hard, fixed, non-tender node

20

Name the functions of the MSK system (6)

- Support (ex. for standing)
- Movement
- Protection (of internal organs)
- RBC production (bone marrow)
- Storage for essential minerals (Ex. Ca and phosporous)
- Framework (of the body)

21

What are the relevant structures of the MSK system?

Bones
Muscles
Cartilage
Joints
Bursa
Ligaments (remember ACL tears)
Tendons

22

Describe the difference between synovial and non synovial joints.

Nonsynovial Joints – only slightly moveable joints Ex. between vertebrae or bones of the skull
Synovial Joints – freely moveable joints, contain synovial fluid and a layer of cartilage between the two bones

23

What is the function of muscle and what are the 3 types of muscle?

Fxn: create movement by contracting
Types: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

24

Go through the skeletal muscle movements on the back of this card

Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Pronation
Supination
Circumduction
Inversion
Eversion
Rotation
Protraction
Retraction
Elevation
Depression

25

Which of the following are hinge joints (select all that apply):
Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)
Spine/vertebral joints
Shoulder
Elbows
Wrist & carpal joints
Hips
Knee
Ankle and Foot

Hinge:
TMJ
Elbows
Knee
Ankle and Foot

Ball and socket:
Hips
Shoulder

26

What are some developmental considerations in MSK assessments of
a) infants and children
b) pregnant persons
c) older persons

a) hip dysplasia (dislocation) & growing pains
b) increased mobility of joints Ex. Lordosis (postural change)
c) Loss of bone density – osteoporosis may occur
Muscle mass decreases
Decreased height b/c of shortening of the vertebral column
Kyphosis = curving of the thoracic spine

27

What are the components of a subjective MSK assessment? (5)

Joints - pain, stiffness, swelling, redness, limitations to ROM
Muscles - pain, weakness
Bones - Pain, congenital anomaly, injury, numbness/tingling
Functional assessment - ADLs
Self-care - exercise, occupational hazards, medds

28

Name all ROMs for each joint in the body.

TMJ - Open-close, Protrusion-retraction, side to side
Spine/vertebral joints - flexion, extension, abduction, rotation
Shoulder - flexion, hyperextension, internal rotation, abduction, adduction, external rotation, circumduction
Elbows - flex/extend
Wrist - flex/extend, side to side
Carpal joints - finger flex/extend
Hips - flexion, internal and external rotation, abduction,
adduction, circumduction
Knee - flex/extend
Ankle and Foot - flex/extend, inversion/eversion

29

What are the characteristics of the spine?

- 33 vertebrae
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
3-4 coccygeal (sometimes fused in people = 3 or not = 4)
- Between each bone is an intervertebral cartilage
- Paravertebral muscles
- Double S curve

30

Name the three bones that meet to make the elbow. Point to the the epicondyles (2) and olecranon process.

humerus
radius
ulna
medial and lateral epicondyles