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Semester 2 - MBChB - Leic Med > MSK - Semester 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in MSK - Semester 2 Deck (101):
1

Which week in pregnancy do the limb buds appear?

week 4

2

Limb bud is a core of proliferating __________ cells with an _ _ _ _ derm covering

Limb bud is a core of proliferating MESENCHYME cells with an ECTODERM covering

3

Thickened ectoderm at apex of limb bud forms the ________ ___________ _______

Thickened ectoderm at apex of limb bud forms the APICAL ECTODERMAL RIDGE

4

Differentiate between:
1) apical ectodermal ridge
2) dorsal ectoderm, and
3) zone of polarizing activity

1) apical ectodermal ridge - regulates outgrowth (proximal to distal)
2) dorsal ectoderm - regulates dorsal-ventral patterning
3) zone of polarizing activity - controls anterior-posterior patterning

5

Cell death in what region (apical ectodermal ridge, dorsal ectoderm or zone of polarizing activity) causes the transformation of paddles to hands with separate digits?

AER (AER maintained over each future fingertip)

6

What is 'syndactyly'?

Fusion of digits

7

What is 'polydactyly'?

Extra digits

8

What is 'amelia'?

Complete absence of a limb

9

What is 'meromelia'?

Partial absense of 1 or more limb structures

10

What is the difference between 'deformation' and 'malformation'?

Deformation - healthy formation but pieces of limbs cut off
Malformation - intrinsic error in coordination of morphogenesis

11

In the 8th week of pregnancy, how do the upper limb and lower limb rotate?

Upper limb - dorsally/laterally 90°
Lower limb - ventrally/medially 90°

12

Define 'dermatome'

Area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve

13

What is the difference between a dermatome and a myotome?

Dermatome - Area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve
Myotome - group of muscles supplied by a single spinal nerve

14

Define 'myotome'

group of muscles supplied by a single spinal nerve

15

What is the specific type of tissue that differentiates into somites?

Paraxial mesoderm

16

What nerve root supplies the middle finger? (sensory)

C7

17

What nerve root supplies the region of skin over the shoulder?

C4

18

What nerve root supplies medial two digits?

C6

19

What nerve root supplies the medial leg?

L4

20

What nerve root supplies the skin over the knee?

L3

21

What nerve root supplies plantar surface of foot?

S1

22

What nerve root supplies back of leg?

S2

23

What nerve root supplies skin at level of nipples?

T4

24

What is a spinal nerve?

Parallel bunch of axons encased in connective tissue that have both MOTOR and SENSORY functions

25

What do the ventral and dorsal ramus supply?

Ventral - muscles and skin of lower and upper limbs; ventral and lateral trunk
Dorsal - deep muscles and skin of dorsal trunk

26

Which branch of the spinal nerve is given off and reenters the spinal canal through intervertebral foramen to supply vertebrae, ligaments, etc.?

Meningeal branch

27

What is the difference between the peripheral nerve distributions and dermatomes?

In one peripheral nerve, there may be fibres from MORE THAN ONE SPINAL NERVE (unlike dermatomes)

28

What is the action of the C5 myotome?

elbow flexion

29

What is the action of the C6 myotome?

wrist extension

30

What is the action of the C7 myotome?

elbow extension

31

What is the action of the C8 myotome?

finger flexion

32

What is the action of the T1 myotome?

finger abduction

33

What is the action of the L2 myotome?

hip flexion

34

What is the action of the L3 myotome?

knee extension

35

What is the action of the L4 myotome?

ankle dorsiflexion

36

What is the action of the L5 myotome?

great toe extension

37

What is the action of the S1 myotome?

ankle plantarflexion

38

What is a motor unit?

Motor neuron + skeletal muscle fibres it innervates

39

What is the difference between a motor unit and a spinal nerve?

Spinal nerve = supplies ONE MYOTOME but contains the neurons of MANY MOTOR UNITS

40

What is the difference between endoneurium, epineurium and perineurium?

Endoneurium - around each axon
Perineurium - around each fascicle
Epineurium - around each spinal nerve (fascicles + blood vessels)

41

Spinal nerves leave the spinal cord via which region of the vertebrae?

Intervertebral foramina

42

C8 spinal nerve exits between which two vertebrae?

C7 and T1

43

What is the typical pattern of herpes zoster infection?

It always affects skin of a single dermatome only

44

Persons who get shingles are likely to have been infected by what virus?

Varicella zoster previously and had chicken pox. Then the virus remains dormant. When host is immunosuppressed, VZV reactivates and travels through peripheral nerve to skin of a single dermatome.

45

The clavicle forms 2 joints with surrounding bones. What are these 2 joints?

Sternoclavicular joint
Acromioclavicular joint

46

Where do fractures of the clavicle usually occur?

Middle third of clavicle

47

When a fracture of the clavicle occurs, explain how the fragments move and why?

Lateral fragment pulled inferiorly due to weight of arm
Medial fragment pulled upward by sternocleidomastoid muscle

48

What is the name of the piece of cartilage on the glenoid fossa to deepen the fossa and increase joint stability?

Glenoid labrum

49

Fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus can lead to damage of which major vessels/nerves?

Axilliary nerve
Circumflex humeral artery damage

50

Fracture of the humerus mid-shaft can lead to damage of which major vessels/nerves?

Brachial artery
Radial nerve

51

Trochlea on the humerus articulates with which bone of the forearm?

Ulna

52

Coracoacromial arch is a protective arch formed by which three elements?

inferior aspect of acromion
coracoid process of scapula
coracoacromial ligament between the two of them

53

What is the importance of the coracoacromial arch?

Prevents upward dislocation of the head of the humerus from the glenoid fossa

54

A supraepicondylar fracture of the humerus is likely to cause damage of which nerve?

Median nerve

55

Give one similarity between Colles fracture and Smiths fracture

both are transverse fractures of the distal radius

56

What deformity does Colles' fracture produce?

dinner fork deformity due to posterior displacement of the distal fragment

57

How does a Smith's fracture of the distal humerus occur?

A fall onto a flexed wrist causing anterior displacement of the distal fragment

58

In patients with scaphoid fractures, what area tends to be tender?

anatomical snuff box

59

What is a major risk in patients with scaphoid fractures?

avascular necrosis of the proximal fragment as the blood supply to the scaphoid is from one distal blood vessel only (so reunion cannot be done)

60

What is a "boxer's fracture"?

Break in the neck of either/or the 4th or 5th metacarpals

61

What is the collective name of the muscles that contribute to glenohumeral stability?

rotator cuff muscles

62

What are the borders of the anatomical snuff box?

Ulnar / medial border - tendon of extensor pollicis longus
Radial / lateral border - tendon of extensor pollicus brevis
Proximal border - styloid process of radius

63

What is the floor and the roof of the anatomical snuff box?

floor - scaphoid and trapezium
roof - skin

64

What are the four muscles of the pectoral region?

Pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor
Subclavius
Serratus anterior

65

Winged scapula occurs as a result of damage to which nerve?

Long thoracic nerve

66

Which muscle is paralysed in "winged scapula"?

Serratus anterior

67

What is the role of the subclavius muscle?

Anchors and depresses clavicle

68

Pectoralis minor inserts where?

The coracoid process of the scapula, so it obviously draws the scapula anteriorly and inferiorly, against the thoracic wall

69

What is the insertion point of pectoralis major?

intertubercular sulcus

70

What are the four main muscles of the back?

Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
Levator scapulae
Rhomboid major and minor

71

Which muscle is the most superficial of all the back muscles?

Trapezius

72

What can you ask a patient to do in order to test the function of the accessory nerve?

Shrug the shoulders
as if the accessory nerve is compromised, the trapezius muscle will be paralysed and patient will not be able to shrug his or her shoulders

73

Where does the trapezius insert (NB there are THREE insertions)?

Lateral clavicle
Acromion
Spine of scapula

74

To what does the latissimus dorsi muscle insert?

intertubercular sulcus of the humerus, just like the pectoralis major!

75

What are the origins of the latissimus dorsi muscle? (NB there are 4 origins)

spinous processes of T6 to T12
iliac crest
inferior 3 ribs
thoraco-lumbar fascia

76

What is the role of the levator scapulae muscle?

elevate and rotate scapula

77

What is the origin of the levator scapulae muscle?

C1-C4 transverse processes

78

Rhomboid major and minor both insert to what structure?

The medial border of the scapula

79

What are the medial, lateral, anterior and posterior borders of the axilla?

Medial - thoracic call and serratus anterior
Lateral - intertubercular sulcus
Anterior - pectoralis major and minor
Posterior - scapularis, teres major, latissimus dorsi

80

6 things are contained in the axilla. Name them.

axillary artery
axillary vein
axillary lymph nodes
brachial plexus
biceps brachii tendons
coracobrachialis tendon

81

In axillary clearance, which nerve can be damaged and if damaged what is the name of the clinical findings?

Long thoracic nerve
Winged scapula

82

The deltoid muscle inserts where specifically on the humerus?

Deltoid tuberosity

83

The deltoid muscle is supplied by which nerve?

axillary nerve

84

Which nerve supplies the teres major muscle?

Lower subscapular nerve

85

The teres major muscle has what actions on the arm?

adducts
medially rotates

86

Name the four muscles of the rotator cuff

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Subscapularis

87

Supraspinatus, infraspinatous and teres minor all attach to ___________. They all have a common role as well which is ___________

Attachment - greater tubercle
Role - External rotation

88

Name the three flexor muscles of the anterior arm

Biceps brachii
Brachialis
Coracobrachialis

89

Abduction of the arm: name the muscles that allow movements at the following angles:
0-15° - ________
15-90° - ____________
90°+ - ______________

0-15° - supraspinatous muscle
15-90° - deltoid (middle fibres)
90°+ - trapezius and serratus anterior (scapular rotation)

90

Which nerve supplies all the flexors of the arm?

Musculocutaneous nerve

91

Biceps brachii has which 2 roles in arm movement?

flexion of the arm at elbow and shoulder
supinator

92

Where does the brachialias muscle insert?

coroNoid process of the ulna

93

"Popeye sign" on flexion of the arm is a sign that which tendon has been ruptured?

tendon of the long head of biceps brachii

94

Branches of which artery supply the flexors of the anterior arm?

brachial artery

95

Which artery supplies the posterior compartment of the arm?

profunda brachii artery

96

What are the lateral, medial and superior borders of the cubital fossa?

Lateral - medial border of brachioradialis
Medial - lateral border of pronator teres
Superior - imaginary line between the two epicondyles

97

Which vein is in the roof of the cubital fossa?

medial cubital vein (connects the basilic and cephalic veins)

98

What are the contents of the cubital fossa?

radial nerve
biceps brachii tendon
brachial artery
median nerve
(really need beer to be at my nicest)

99

The medial cubital vein situated in the roof of the cubital fossa connects which two veins of the arm?

basilic
cephalic

100

Supracondylar fractures can lead to which condition, common in children?

Volksmann's ischaemic contracture

101

How does a supracondylar fracture lead to Volksmann's ischaemic contracture?

Post fracture swelling compresses brachial artery
so ischaemia of muscles of the forearm, muscles become fibrotic and short
arm flexes uncontrollably