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NAT 5 Biology > Multicelluar Organisms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Multicelluar Organisms Deck (75):
1

What are the three main parts of a short term memory and their functions?

Chunking - grouping familiar stimuli for storage as a single unit
Limited capacity - magical number 7 plus or minus 2
Limited duration - about 20 seconds without rehearsal
Rehearsal- the process of repetitively verbalising or thinking about the information

2

What is a Neuron?

A nerve cell

3

How is information passed through the body?

By electrical impulses which carry messages along the neurons

4

What is the function of the sensory neuron?

It receives information from the receptor (the sense organ) and passes the information to the CNS (Central Neuron System)

5

What are the three main parts to the brain?

Cerebellum
Cerebrum
Medulla

6

Name two functions of the cerebrum ?

Memories are stored here
Control of personality

7

What are the functions of the Medulla?

Controls the heart rate
Controls breathing rate

8

Whats the function of the cerebellum?

Controls balance and muscular coordination

9

What is the function of the inter Neuron?

Transfers information within the CNS (brain and spinal cord) receives information from the sensory Neuron then passes information to the motor Neuron

10

What is the function of the motor Neuron?

Receives information from the CNS, passes the information to effectors which produces a response.

11

What is an effector?

An effector is a part of the body that produces the response. Effectors can either be:
Muscles contracting (rapid response)
Glands which produce hormones (slow response)

12

What are synapses?

Neurons are separated by gaps called synapse. Messages are transferred between neurons at synapses and trigger an electrical impulse in the next neuron.

13

What is mRNA?

mRNA is a messenger RNA

14

What is the process for mRNA from the nucleus to the ribosomes?

mRNA leaves the nucleus with a copy if the gene to the ribosomes and the ribosomes makes amino acids

15

What is chromosomes made up of?

They are made up of genes in a threadlike structure and it’s found in the nucleus

16

What does DNA stand for?

Deoxyribose nucleic acid

17

What are the complementary base pairings?

A - T
G - C

18

What does the sequence of bases determine?

It determines the subunits that are joined together

19

What is a chromosome?

-A chromosome is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism
- A lot of DNA together

20

What is a gene?

A section of DNA

21

What is DNA?

A set of instructions that you, you

22

Where are chromosomes found?

They are found in the nucleus of our cells, they are made up of genes

23

What is a gene?

A gene is a short section of DNA. Each gene codes for a specific protein and are passed on to us from our parents

24

Name one type of protein?

Insulin

25

What characteristics does bacteria have to allow them to pass plasmid?

They have loops of plasmids that can be passed on by being in contact with another bacterial cell

26

What is Genetic engineering?

It’s the transfer of DNA from one organism to another using technology

27

How can DNA be transferred?

They can be transferred naturally between cells either by bacterial plasmids and viruses

28

How can genetic information be transferred?

From one cell to another by genetic engineering

29

What is a vector?

Is a plasmid that’s used to transfer genetic material from a donor to a recipient

30

What features of a plant cell are not found in an animal cell?

1. Cell Wall
2. Chloroplast
3. Vacuole

31

In mammals what does the blood contain?

Plasma
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets

32

What is the main function of the red blood cells?

It transports oxygen around the body

33

What are the features of a red blood cells?

Biconcave
No nucleus
Contain haemoglobin

34

What is haemoglobin?

It’s a protein that oxygen attaches itself to

35

When haemoglobin and oxygen combine what is formed?

Oxyhemoglobin

36

What oxygen concentration is needed for oxyhemoglobin to form?

High

37

White blood cells are part of the immune system and are involved in destroying pathogens.

What are the two main types of cells involved in destroying pathogens?

Phagocytes and Lymphocytes

38

How does phagocytes carry phagocytosis?

By engulfing phatogens

39

What does some lymphocytes produce?

Antibodies

40

Are each antibodies specific to a particular pathogen?

Yes

41

How many types of blood vessels does the body have?

3

42

Name the three types of blood vessels?

Arteries (fat)
Capillaries (one cell thick)
Veins (thin and has valves)

43

What does the Arteries do?

Carry blood under high pressure away from the heart

44

What are the features of the arteries?

They have think muscular wall and a narrow central channel

45

What does the veins do?

Carry blood under low pressure back towards the heart

46

What are the features of the veins?

They have wider central channel a thin muscular wall and valve

47

What are the uses of valves?

They prevent the back flow of blood

48

What are the functions of the capillaries?

This is where the exchange of materials (oxygen, nutrients and carbon dioxide) occur

49

What is the structure of the capillaries?

Their walls are very thin to allow substances to easily and quickly diffuse, or pass through them.

50

In genetic engineering what is required throughout the process?

Enzymes

51

What is the process of inserting insulin into bacterial cell?

One enzyme is used like “scissors” to cut out the desired gene from the human cell and open up the plasmid from the bacteria cell. Another enzyme is used like “glue” to seal the required gene into the plasmid. And then the new plasmid is put into the bacterial cell and then mitosis happens

52

What are some useful products that can be made by genetic engineering?

Insulin
Factor VIII
Human Growth Hormone
(These are all protein hormone)

53

What is insulin?

A hormone made by pancreas cells which controls levels of glucose in blood

54

What is Factor VIII?

A chemical present in blood required for clotting of wounds

55

What is human growth hormone?

A hormone made by cells in the pituitary gland which is essential during childhood and adolescence for growth and development

56

What are sub units in a whole protein made up of?

A sub units of a whole protein is made up of amino acids

57

Why does each protein vary in shape and function?

This is because of the different sequence of amino acids

58

What are the sub units if DNA?

A - T
G - C

59

How many different types if amino acids are there?

20

60

What are the protein groups?

Structural units
Enzymes
Hormones
Antibodies
Receptors

61

What is an example of of a hormone?

Amylase
Catalase

62

What is the function of hormones?

Carry specific messages in the blood stream of living organisms

63

What is the terminology used for identifying the strong and weak genes?

Dominant and Recessive

64

What is the function of structural units?

Give strength and support to the cellular structures

65

What is the function of an enzyme?

It acts as a biological catalyst to speed up biological reaction in a cell and remains unchanged once the reaction is completed

66

What is an antibody?

Provide specific defences against body invaders such as certain bacteria and viruses

67

What is an example of an enzyme?

Keratin
Collagen

68

What is the function of a receptor?

Allows cells to recognise specific substances

69

What is an example of receptors?

Sensory and pain

70

How many enzymes works on one reaction?

1

71

What is a substrate?

A substance an enzyme works on

72

Fact

All enzymes are protein BUT not all proteins are enzymes

73

What is the name given to the break down of a molecule?

Degradation

74

What is the name given to the build up of a molecule?

Synthesis

75

What enzyme takes part in a synthesis reaction?

Phosphorylase