Flashcards in Multicelluar Organisms Deck (75):
What are the three main parts of a short term memory and their functions?
Chunking - grouping familiar stimuli for storage as a single unit
Limited capacity - magical number 7 plus or minus 2
Limited duration - about 20 seconds without rehearsal
Rehearsal- the process of repetitively verbalising or thinking about the information
What is a Neuron?
A nerve cell
How is information passed through the body?
By electrical impulses which carry messages along the neurons
What is the function of the sensory neuron?
It receives information from the receptor (the sense organ) and passes the information to the CNS (Central Neuron System)
What are the three main parts to the brain?
Name two functions of the cerebrum ?
Memories are stored here
Control of personality
What are the functions of the Medulla?
Controls the heart rate
Controls breathing rate
Whats the function of the cerebellum?
Controls balance and muscular coordination
What is the function of the inter Neuron?
Transfers information within the CNS (brain and spinal cord) receives information from the sensory Neuron then passes information to the motor Neuron
What is the function of the motor Neuron?
Receives information from the CNS, passes the information to effectors which produces a response.
What is an effector?
An effector is a part of the body that produces the response. Effectors can either be:
Muscles contracting (rapid response)
Glands which produce hormones (slow response)
What are synapses?
Neurons are separated by gaps called synapse. Messages are transferred between neurons at synapses and trigger an electrical impulse in the next neuron.
What is mRNA?
mRNA is a messenger RNA
What is the process for mRNA from the nucleus to the ribosomes?
mRNA leaves the nucleus with a copy if the gene to the ribosomes and the ribosomes makes amino acids
What is chromosomes made up of?
They are made up of genes in a threadlike structure and it’s found in the nucleus
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribose nucleic acid
What are the complementary base pairings?
A - T
G - C
What does the sequence of bases determine?
It determines the subunits that are joined together
What is a chromosome?
-A chromosome is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism
- A lot of DNA together
What is a gene?
A section of DNA
What is DNA?
A set of instructions that you, you
Where are chromosomes found?
They are found in the nucleus of our cells, they are made up of genes
What is a gene?
A gene is a short section of DNA. Each gene codes for a specific protein and are passed on to us from our parents
Name one type of protein?
What characteristics does bacteria have to allow them to pass plasmid?
They have loops of plasmids that can be passed on by being in contact with another bacterial cell
What is Genetic engineering?
It’s the transfer of DNA from one organism to another using technology
How can DNA be transferred?
They can be transferred naturally between cells either by bacterial plasmids and viruses
How can genetic information be transferred?
From one cell to another by genetic engineering
What is a vector?
Is a plasmid that’s used to transfer genetic material from a donor to a recipient
What features of a plant cell are not found in an animal cell?
1. Cell Wall
In mammals what does the blood contain?
Red blood cells
White blood cells
What is the main function of the red blood cells?
It transports oxygen around the body
What are the features of a red blood cells?
What is haemoglobin?
It’s a protein that oxygen attaches itself to
When haemoglobin and oxygen combine what is formed?
What oxygen concentration is needed for oxyhemoglobin to form?
White blood cells are part of the immune system and are involved in destroying pathogens.
What are the two main types of cells involved in destroying pathogens?
Phagocytes and Lymphocytes
How does phagocytes carry phagocytosis?
By engulfing phatogens
What does some lymphocytes produce?
Are each antibodies specific to a particular pathogen?
How many types of blood vessels does the body have?
Name the three types of blood vessels?
Capillaries (one cell thick)
Veins (thin and has valves)
What does the Arteries do?
Carry blood under high pressure away from the heart
What are the features of the arteries?
They have think muscular wall and a narrow central channel
What does the veins do?
Carry blood under low pressure back towards the heart
What are the features of the veins?
They have wider central channel a thin muscular wall and valve
What are the uses of valves?
They prevent the back flow of blood
What are the functions of the capillaries?
This is where the exchange of materials (oxygen, nutrients and carbon dioxide) occur
What is the structure of the capillaries?
Their walls are very thin to allow substances to easily and quickly diffuse, or pass through them.
In genetic engineering what is required throughout the process?
What is the process of inserting insulin into bacterial cell?
One enzyme is used like “scissors” to cut out the desired gene from the human cell and open up the plasmid from the bacteria cell. Another enzyme is used like “glue” to seal the required gene into the plasmid. And then the new plasmid is put into the bacterial cell and then mitosis happens
What are some useful products that can be made by genetic engineering?
Human Growth Hormone
(These are all protein hormone)
What is insulin?
A hormone made by pancreas cells which controls levels of glucose in blood
What is Factor VIII?
A chemical present in blood required for clotting of wounds
What is human growth hormone?
A hormone made by cells in the pituitary gland which is essential during childhood and adolescence for growth and development
What are sub units in a whole protein made up of?
A sub units of a whole protein is made up of amino acids
Why does each protein vary in shape and function?
This is because of the different sequence of amino acids
What are the sub units if DNA?
A - T
G - C
How many different types if amino acids are there?
What are the protein groups?
What is an example of of a hormone?
What is the function of hormones?
Carry specific messages in the blood stream of living organisms
What is the terminology used for identifying the strong and weak genes?
Dominant and Recessive
What is the function of structural units?
Give strength and support to the cellular structures
What is the function of an enzyme?
It acts as a biological catalyst to speed up biological reaction in a cell and remains unchanged once the reaction is completed
What is an antibody?
Provide specific defences against body invaders such as certain bacteria and viruses
What is an example of an enzyme?
What is the function of a receptor?
Allows cells to recognise specific substances
What is an example of receptors?
Sensory and pain
How many enzymes works on one reaction?
What is a substrate?
A substance an enzyme works on
All enzymes are protein BUT not all proteins are enzymes
What is the name given to the break down of a molecule?
What is the name given to the build up of a molecule?