Flashcards in Murmurs Deck (13):
In mitral stenosis, what is the typical murmur heard?
Loud S1 with an opening snap, rumbling mid-diastolic murmur.
Where is the murmur in mitral stenosis best heard?
Patient lying on L hand side in held expiration.
4th-5th intercostal space in mid clavicular line
What is the most common cause of mitral stenosis?
Rheumatic heart disease following rheumatic fever
What is the normal diameter of the mitral valve orifice?
At what size orifice do symptoms usually start occuring in mitral stenosis?
What symptoms typically occur in mitral stenosis?
What signs typically occur in mitral stenosis?
Low volume pulse
Tapping, non-displaced apex beat
Rumbling mid-diastolic murmur with loud S1 and openeing snap
What test is diagnostic for mitral stenosis? What does it typically show?
ECHO - hockey stick shaped mitral deformity
What could CXR show in mitral stenosis?
Mitral valve calcification
What could ECG show in mitral stenosis?
What are the indications for cardiac catheterisation in mitral stenosis?
Signs of other valve disease
Severe pulmonary HTN
Calcified mitral valve
How is mitral stenosis managed?
Usually watch and monitor unless severe and symptomatic.
At that stage duiretic (furosemide or bumetanide) or balloon valvotomy is indicated