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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal System Deck (146)
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1

What are the two meanings of bone?

1) Bone the organ
- organs are made up of different types of tissue
2) Bone the tissue
- One of the tissues found in the bones of the skeleton.

2

What are the 6 functions of the skeletal system?

1) support
2) protection of vital organs
3) movement - muscle must pull on bone
4) Calcium and phosphorous reserve
5) Haemopoiesis
6) Fat storage

3

Why must calcium be tightly regulated?

It is used for many things, e.g. muscle contraction of heart, hormone and enzyme production.

4

What percentage of calcium is stored in the bones?

99% in the bones

5

What is the function of haemopoietic tissue? What colour is it?

Makes RBC's, WBC's and platelets.
Red

6

What are the two components of bone marrow?

Haemopoietic tissue and fat storage tissue

7

What is the phosphorous found in bone used for?

To build many substances e.g. ATP

8

Describe the bone marrow at birth compared to that of an adult.

All bone marrow is red at birth.
In adults, red bone marrow tends to be in the axial skeleton.

9

What are the two components of the adult skeleton?

Axial and Appendicular

10

How many bones are in the axial and appendicular skeleton?

80 (some paired)
126 (all paired)

11

What are the differences in function between the axial and appendicular skeleton?

Axial: support/protection and haemopoiesis
Appendicular: movement and fat storage

12

Describe the overall sections of a long bone in order.

Epiphysis, metaphysis, diaphysis, metaphysis, epiphysis

13

Relate the type of forces to the requirement for plates, rods and beams in the epiphysis and diaphysis.

Epiphysis: Forces perpendicular so plates, rods, and beams are needed for support.
Diaphysis: Forces are parallel so no need for plates, rods, and beams.

14

What are plates, rods and beams formed by?

Trabeculae

15

What are trabeculae covered by?

Endosteum

16

List the layers of the epiphysis from outside to inside.

Articular cartilage, compact bone, spongy bone

17

What is another name for spongy bone?

Trabecular bone

18

Why is there no periosteum covering the articular cartilage?

It would just be sheared off by the other bone.

19

What is found between trabeculae?

Medullary cavity with bone marrow inside.

20

Where are blood vessels found in the epiphysis? What is their function?

Inside compact bone and between trabeculae.
RBC's, WBC's and platelets can enter blood.

21

Give the layers of the diaphysis from outside in.

Periosteum, compact bone, endosteum, medullary cavity

22

What is the periosteum?

Outer fibro-cellular sheath surrounding the bone. Made up of dense irregular connective tissue, rich with blood vessels and nerves.

23

Describe the compact bone of the diaphysis.

Forms a cylinder
Very light and strong

24

How does the compact bone of the diaphysis compare to that of the epiphysis?

D: thick
E: thin

25

Describe the endosteum of the diaphysis.

Thin, inner fibro-cellular layer lining medullary cavity.

26

What does the medullary cavity of the diaphysis contain in the appendicular skeleton vs the axial skeleton vs the front of the face?

Appendicular: yellow bone marrow
Axial: red bone marrow
Front of face: air (must be lighter)

27

What is another name for the perforating fibres between the periosteum and the compact bone? What are they produced by?

Sharpey's fibers - very strong
Collagen produced by periosteum blends with the collagen on the bone.

28

Where are the blood vessels found in the diaphysis?

In the periosteum and compact bone.

29

Bone is a type of __________ _________ tissue

Specialised connective

30

What are the two components of connective tissue?

ECM and cells