Flashcards in Musculoskeletal System Deck (146)
What are the two meanings of bone?
1) Bone the organ
- organs are made up of different types of tissue
2) Bone the tissue
- One of the tissues found in the bones of the skeleton.
What are the 6 functions of the skeletal system?
2) protection of vital organs
3) movement - muscle must pull on bone
4) Calcium and phosphorous reserve
6) Fat storage
Why must calcium be tightly regulated?
It is used for many things, e.g. muscle contraction of heart, hormone and enzyme production.
What percentage of calcium is stored in the bones?
99% in the bones
What is the function of haemopoietic tissue? What colour is it?
Makes RBC's, WBC's and platelets.
What are the two components of bone marrow?
Haemopoietic tissue and fat storage tissue
What is the phosphorous found in bone used for?
To build many substances e.g. ATP
Describe the bone marrow at birth compared to that of an adult.
All bone marrow is red at birth.
In adults, red bone marrow tends to be in the axial skeleton.
What are the two components of the adult skeleton?
Axial and Appendicular
How many bones are in the axial and appendicular skeleton?
80 (some paired)
126 (all paired)
What are the differences in function between the axial and appendicular skeleton?
Axial: support/protection and haemopoiesis
Appendicular: movement and fat storage
Describe the overall sections of a long bone in order.
Epiphysis, metaphysis, diaphysis, metaphysis, epiphysis
Relate the type of forces to the requirement for plates, rods and beams in the epiphysis and diaphysis.
Epiphysis: Forces perpendicular so plates, rods, and beams are needed for support.
Diaphysis: Forces are parallel so no need for plates, rods, and beams.
What are plates, rods and beams formed by?
What are trabeculae covered by?
List the layers of the epiphysis from outside to inside.
Articular cartilage, compact bone, spongy bone
What is another name for spongy bone?
Why is there no periosteum covering the articular cartilage?
It would just be sheared off by the other bone.
What is found between trabeculae?
Medullary cavity with bone marrow inside.
Where are blood vessels found in the epiphysis? What is their function?
Inside compact bone and between trabeculae.
RBC's, WBC's and platelets can enter blood.
Give the layers of the diaphysis from outside in.
Periosteum, compact bone, endosteum, medullary cavity
What is the periosteum?
Outer fibro-cellular sheath surrounding the bone. Made up of dense irregular connective tissue, rich with blood vessels and nerves.
Describe the compact bone of the diaphysis.
Forms a cylinder
Very light and strong
How does the compact bone of the diaphysis compare to that of the epiphysis?
Describe the endosteum of the diaphysis.
Thin, inner fibro-cellular layer lining medullary cavity.
What does the medullary cavity of the diaphysis contain in the appendicular skeleton vs the axial skeleton vs the front of the face?
Appendicular: yellow bone marrow
Axial: red bone marrow
Front of face: air (must be lighter)
What is another name for the perforating fibres between the periosteum and the compact bone? What are they produced by?
Sharpey's fibers - very strong
Collagen produced by periosteum blends with the collagen on the bone.
Where are the blood vessels found in the diaphysis?
In the periosteum and compact bone.
Bone is a type of __________ _________ tissue