Myocardial Pathology (complete) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Myocardial Pathology (complete) Deck (17):
1

Name the most common primary cardiac neoplasms in infants/children

Rhabdomyoma

2

Name the most common primary cardiac neoplasms in teens/adults.

Cardiac Myxoma

3

Name the most common location of a cardiac myxoma.

Left atrium

4

What are the possible complications of a cardiac myxoma?

- Fragments can embolize into systemic circulation => lodge in brain, kidneys, other organs
- Can cause syncope and sudden death

5

What are the types of organisms that may infect the myocardium?

- Viruses (coxsackievirus A/B) => inflammation w/ injury to myocardium
- Bacterial
- Fungi
- Parasites (Trichinosis, Chagas Disease)

6

Name at least one autoimmune disease that may affect the heart and identify the components of the heart that can be affected.

Collagen Vascular Disease, SLE, RA, Scleroderma, Systemic Slcerosis

- Heart is involved due to systemic disease processes
- Can involve pericardium, myocardium, endocardium
- Sometimes vasculitis => small infarcts

7

Name at least one medication associated with toxic cardiomyopathy

Adriamycin (a chemo drug)

8

Name at least one non-medication substance associated with toxic cardiomyopathy.

Ethanol

Cobalt from artificial joints

9

Name the disease process where proteins deposit (as beta-pleated sheets) around blood vessels and in the parenchyma of various organs.

Amyloidosis

10

Name a neoplasm commonly associated with this disease process.

Plasma cell neoplasm (e.g. multiple myeloma)

11

Define myocarditis

a

12

Define primary cardiomyopathy

Heart disease resulting from a primary abnormality in the myocardium

13

Define secondary cardiomyopathy

Heart disease NOT resulting from a primary abnormality in the myocardium
- Ischemic disease
- HTN
- Valve-associated

14

For hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, describe the macroscopic appearance of the heart, if the problem is with contraction or relaxation of the myocardium, and the prevalence of genetic mutations associated with that condition.

Impaired RELAXATION

Appearance:
Thickened (3-4x) interventricular septum => bulges into LV

Genetics:
100% of cases due to genetic mutations

15

For dilated cardiomyopathy, describe the macroscopic appearance of the heart, if the problem is with contraction or relaxation of the myocardium, and the prevalence of genetic mutations associated with that condition.

Impaired CONTRACTILITY

Appearance:
Heart is BIG, dilated ---- walls may be thick or thin (depends on how long this person has had this)

Genetics:
30-40% of cases associated w/ mutations

16

For restrictive cardiomyopathy, describe the macroscopic appearance of the heart, if the problem is with contraction or relaxation of the myocardium, and the prevalence of genetic mutations associated with that condition.

Impaired RELAXATION (cannot relax during diastole)

Appearance:
Fibrosis or infiltrated myocardium

Genetics:
Typically acquired (very few genetically linked)

17

List some examples of causes of restrictive cardiomyopathy.

- Amyloid deposition
- Radiation induced fibrosis