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Flashcards in Napa Valley Deck (88):

*What percent of California wine is made in Napa Valley?

4% [California contributes 10% of the world's production]


What percent of the world's wine is made in Napa Valley?



Compare the sizes of Napa Valley and Bordeaux.

Napa Valley is 1/8 the size, 45,000 acres.


*What are the eastern mountain ranges of Napa Valley?

Vaca Range or Vaca Mountains


*What are the western mountain ranges of Napa Valley?

Mayacamas Mountains


*Which Napa Valley AVA has the lowest rainfall?

Los Carneros


What are the principal grape varieties in Los Carneros AVA?

Chardonnay, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah also does well [not Cabernet Sauvignon which does not ripen well]


*Which Napa Valley AVA has the lowest daytime temperatures?

Los Carneros, due cooling effect of wind and fog from the San Pablo Bay


Which Napa Valley AVA has the largest alluvial fan?

Oak Knoll District (fan formed by Dry Creek, but not to be confused with Dry Creek Valley AVA in Sonoma)


What are the principal grape varieties in Oak Knoll District AVA?

Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay


What characteristic of the soil in Los Carneros restricts yields?

the hard claypan subsoil prevents deep rooting


Cabernet Sauvignon makes up what percent of the California grape harvest?

12% (the second most common varietal, slightly below Chardonnay) [vs. 40% for Napa Cabernet Sauvignon]


*Cabernet Sauvignon makes up what percent of the Napa Valley grape harvest?

40% (significantly more than Chardonnay which is 11% of the Napa harvest) [the 40% Napa Cab compares with 12% for California Cabernet Sauvignon]


Cabernet Sauvignon makes up what percent of the value of the Napa Valley grape harvest?



Name the top 5 grape varieties in Napa Valley.

Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noir


*In Oakville and Rutherford AVAs, describe the soil on the west.

primarily sedimentary gravelly alluvial loams [sedimentary GAL]


*In Oakville and Rutherford AVAs, describe the soil on the east.

east side has more volcanic soils, moderately deep, more fertile


*Which Napa Valley AVA has the highest day temperatures?

St. Helena AVA, less fog and wine, narrowing of the valley floor provides more heat reflection off the hillsides [not Calistoga which gets a cooling effect from Chalk HIll gap]


What is the most eastern Napa Valley AVA?

Wild Horse Valley AVA


Which Napa Valley AVA is noted for steeper, smaller hillside vineyards surrounded by tall evergreen forest?

Spring Mountain District AVA


*What is the newest Napa Valley AVA?

Coombsville, 2012


*Name the year the Judgment of Paris took place and the two winning wines.

May 1976; winners were Chateau Montelena Chardonnay 1973 (Jim Barrett and Mike Grgich) and Stag's Leap Wine Cellars Cabernet Sauvignon 1973 (Warren Winiarski)


What was the first sub-appellation wholly within Napa Valley to receive its own AVA,

Howell Mountain AVA


Name an AVA in Napa Valley associated with benchmark mountain style Cabernet Sauvignon?

Howell Mountain AVA


Name an AVA in Napa Valley associated with benchmark valley floor style Cabernet Sauvignon?

Rutherford AVA (historically, the Beaulieu and Inglenook wineries)


Name a well-known producer in the Mount Veeder AVA with an art collection on premises.

Hess Collection


*Name the 8 Napa Valley AVA's that comprise the valley floor.

South to North: Carneros, Coombsville, Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley, Yountville, Stags Leap District, Oakville, Rutherford, St. Helena


*Name the 4 Napa Valley AVA's that lie on the western border north of Carneros.

Mount Veeder, Spring Mountain District, Diamond Mountain, Calistoga


*Name the 4 Napa Valley AVA's that lie on the eastern side.

Wild Horse Valley, Atlas Peak, Chiles Valley District, Howell Mountain.


*State the year the Agricultural Preserve was established and what it is.

In 1968, a commitment to agriculture as the “highest and best use” of most of the land outside of the local towns and the city of Napa. It protects agricultural use of the land, about 38,000 acres. [before Paris Tasting!]


What was the main mechanism by which the Agricultural Preserve achieved its goal?

The ordinance dictated that the only commercial activity allowed in these areas was agriculture and, furthermore, set minimum lot sizes that prevented further subdivision of parcels, limiting the potential for development. The 20-acre minimum in the Agricultural Preserve (AP) and 40-acre minimum in the Agricultural Watershed (AW) were later increased to 40 acres and 160 acres, respectively.


What percent of Napa Valley Vinters make less than 10,00 cases a year?



*Name the person to plant 1st grapes in Napa and the year.

George Yount planted first vineyards in 1838-39.


*Who established the first commercial winery in Napa and the year?

Charles Krug, 1861 [not vineyard, that would be Yount]


What is the “75% rule”?

This rule dictates that wineries in Napa must use at least 75% grapes from Napa County. This was intended to curtail the mass production of non-Napa wines within the county.


What city is closest to the Mondavi Winery?



What city is closest to the Sterling Vineyards Winery?



What city is closest to the Duckhorn Winery?

St. Helena


What are the main grapes in Duckhorn Paraduxx blend?

Zinfandel, Cabernet, Merlot


What is the difference between Stags' Leap Winery and Stag's Leap Wine Cellar? (What does an apostrophe mean?)

A lawsuit initiated by Winiarski of Stag's Leap Wine Cellar and a counter-suit filed by Carl Doumani, owner of Stags' Leap Winery, was decided in 1986 by the California Supreme Court. The two wineries were founded in the same year, and both claimed first use of the name "Stag's Leap". The court decided that the wineries were named after the area, so both were allowed to use the name. The judgment included a provision that Winiarski would keep the apostrophe before the s in his winery name, where Doumani would use the apostrophe after the s. The Stags Leap District AVA has no apostrophe.


What geographic features define the Howell Mountain AVA?

high-altitude, west-facing vineyards


What soil type predominates in Calistoga AVA?

volcanic (mountain area in the western aspect of county above the valley floor)


Why is the soil type of Diamond Mountain District significant?

Soil is combination of both sedimentary and volcanic origin. Along the western edge of Napa Valley, this AVA marks the transition from sedimentary soils to the south (Mount Veeder and Spring Mountain District) and volcanic soils to the north (Calistoga.)


How does the soil type of Oak Knoll District differ from other valley floor AVA's?

Although it is a mix of volcanic and sedimentary soils, the typical east/west dichotomy found in Rutherford and Oakville is reversed, with volcanic soil in the northwest area of the AVA


What is a fluvial process?

Fluvial is a term used in geography and geology to refer to the processes associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them.


What is an alluvial fan?

An alluvial fan is a cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams. Fans are typically found where a canyon draining from mountainous terrain emerges out onto a flatter plain.


What are the main characteristics of the Napa Valley climate?

Mediterranean climate zone with long growing season, lack of summer rainfall, vintage-to-vintage consistency and reduced risk of vineyard disease.


What is conjunctive labeling in Napa Valley and when was it codified?

If the nested AVA is listed, Napa Valley must also be listed; CA state law in 1986.


*State the rough width and length of Napa Valley.

Napa Valley is 30 miles in length and 5 miles across at its widest point.


*Name the formation that pushed up a new land mass to the west of Napa Valley 150 million years ago.

Franciscan Formation is a geologic term for a late Mesozoic terrane of heterogeneous rocks found throughout the California Coast Ranges, and particularly on the San Francisco Peninsula.


What is the best known geologic feature in northern California?

It is the San Andreas fault which extends north along the coast from San Francisco and ends at the "Triple Junction" offshore of Cape Mendocino. The Triple Junction is where the American Plate, Pacific Plate and the Gorda Plate meet.


What is the Farallon Plate?

The Farallon Plate was an ancient oceanic plate that began subducting under the west coast of the North American Plate—then located in modern Utah—as Pangaea broke apart during the Jurassic period. It is named for the Farallon Islands, which are located just west of San Francisco, California. The remains of the Farallon Plate are the Juan de Fuca, Explorer and Gorda Plates,


*Name the sequence that formed Napa's eastern mountains 150 million years ago.

The Great Valley Sequence, like the Franciscan Formation, was deposited as a consequence of the ancient subduction of oceanic crust beneath the California continental margin prior to formation of the modern San Andreas Fault. The rocks in Great Valley Sequence are largely shale deposited in a deep-marine setting with thick bodies of sandstone.


*Name the mountain at the far north of the Napa Valley.

Mount Saint Helena, the Bay Area's second tallest peak at 4,344 feet


What soil type predominates in Howell Mountain AVA?

predominantly volcanic with low fertility in contrast to eastern aspect of Rutherford AVA which also has volcanic soil with moderate fertility.


The California wine industry has a $40+ B impact on the US economy, what proportion of that comes from Napa County?



What is the northern limit of the San Pablo Bay influence?



From a viticultural standpoint, what is the advantage of a long growing season?

allows balance between sugar and acidity


What is the significance of Chalk Hill Gap?

Fog from Sonoma can enter the northern aspect of Napa valley to create a cooling effect in Calistoga.


Who controls the Shramsberg estate in Calistoga?

Originally started by Jacob Shram in 1862, the property stayed in the family for 40 years. After the sale and years of neglectful owners, Schramsberg was sold to Jack and Jamie Davies in 1965 and wine production restarted. In 1972, Schramsberg's 1969 vintage "Blanc de Blancs" was served at the "Toast to Peace" in Beijing, between Richard Nixon and Chou Enlai.


What does LVMH represent and what wine houses do they control?

Louis Vitton Moet Hennessey; Château d'Yquem, Dom Pérignon, Domaine Chandon California, Krug, Moët & Chandon, Ruinart, Veuve Clicquot (A third of the drink division of LVMH is held by Diageo which owns Sterling Vineyards.)


Summarize the evolution of the controlling interests of Inglenook which was founded in what year?

Inglenook winery in Rutherford was founded in 1879 by a Finnish Sea Captain Gustave Niebaum. After Prohibition his widow reopened Inglenook and brought in a viticulturist and an enologist to upgrade the winemaking system. Niebaum's great-nephew John Daniel Jr. took over operations in 1939 and by the 1940s Inglenook's wines once were again declared by many to be the best in the Valley. The property was bought by United Vinters in 1964 and the Inglenook brand was used to market jug wine. Much of the property was acquired by Francis Ford Coppola in 1975 with profits of his film, The Godfather. A small remaining subsecton including the historic winery, were bought by Coppola in 1995. In 2011, Francis Ford Coppola acquired the iconic Inglenook trademark.


Who was Andre Tchelistcheff?

He was America's most influential post-Prohibition winemaker. Tchelistcheff is most notable for his contributions toward defining the style of California's best wines, especially Cabernet Sauvignon; started at Beaulieu Vineyards (BV) in 1938.


Who made the first vintage-dated, varietally labeled in Napa Valley?

Ric Forman made the first vintage-dated, varietally labeled Merlot in 1969, for Sterling Vineyards


Apart from Ric Forman, who was the most significant player in making Napa Valley Merlot in the 1970's?

Dan Duckhorn of Duckhorn Vineyards founded his winery in 1976 in St. Helena.


What is the relationship between Newton Vineyard and Sterling Vineyard?

Newton Vineyard was the second wine estate established by Peter and Su Hua Newton. Their first (Sterling Vineyards) was sold to soft drinks giant Coca-Cola in the 1970s. Part of Newton was sold to LVMH in 2001. Newton Vineyard is still operated by the Newton family though overseeing control rests with the Veuve Cliquot division of LVMH.


Name the Napa Valley AVA that overlaps into Solano County.

Wild Horse Valley AVA


What was the source of Chardonnay in the '73 Chateau Montelena wine?

1 ton from Lee Paschich (previous owner of Chateau Montelena), 4 tons from John Hanna near Napa City, 35 tons from Henry Dick in Alexander Valley. [mostly Sonoma County fruit!]


What was the source of grapes in the '73 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars Cabernet Sauvignon?

estate bottled (yeast came from Beaulieu Vineyards)


How much Cabernet Sauvignon was in the '73 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars wine?

90% Cabernet Sauvignon, 10% Merlot


What was the retail price of the '73 Stag's Leap Wine Cellars Cabernet Sauvignon?



What was the sequence of Napa wineries where Mike Grgich worked?

Souverain, Christian Brothers, Beaulieu, Mondavi, Chateau Montelena, Grgich Hills


What geographic feature is referenced in the name Grgich Hills Estate (formerly Grgich Hills Cellar)?

None! Hills references Austin Hills of Hills Brothers Coffee


When, where and what winery did George de Latour establish?

In 1900 Beaulieu Vineyard was established in Rutherford


In the 1950s and 1960s, what were the "big four" Napa Valley producers?

Beaulieu, Inglenook Charles Krug, and Louis Martini


When did Robert Mondavi establish his winery?

1966 (Oakville)


What winery did Robert Mondavi leave before establishing his own winery?

Krug Winery


When did Krug establish his winery and what was the source of the land?

1861, dowry of his wife provide 500+ acres north of St. Helena.


Who owns Krug winery now?

Peter Mondavi's family now controls it, previously acquired by Peter's father, Cesare, in 1943.


Who did Charles Krug work for prior to opening his winery?

Agoston Haraszthy and John Patchett


Compare the sizes of Napa Valley and Cote d'Or in Burgundy.

about the same size


What percent of the California wine industry impact on the US is generated by Napa Valley?

34% (vs. 4% of CA wine production)


Which side of the Napa Valley receives the stronger sun exposure?

The eastern side of the valley with slopes facing to the west are exposed to the afternoon sun with less fog, thus a stronger sun exposure.


When did the first scourge of phylloxera come to California?



*When was Napa Valley Vinters association formed?



Who was the driving force behind the creation of Oak Knoll District AVA?

Janet Trefethen


How did Tchelistcheff compare Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir?

"God made Cabernet Sauvignon whereas the devil made Pinot Noir"


*How many AVA's are in Napa County?

17, 8 valley floor, 4 western mountains, 4 eastern mountains and Napa Valley AVA